Psychoactive Research chemicals are new synthetic substances that are structurally similar to the original drug, while being functional analogs. Research on the effects of, and treatment for, abuse of these drugs is limited due to the fact that they’re fairly new and have avoided mainstream notice. Research chemicals do not have a lot of human consumption data, and thus harm-reduction and special care should be taken if choosing to ingest them.
Psychedelics are drugs which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations. These chemicals offer some of the most intense psychological experiences and care should be taken when ingesting them.
Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most power and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.
Practice Harm Reduction. Proceed with Caution.
Also known as:
3-dioxol-6-amine, 6 ,7-dihydro-
3-dioxol-6-amine, 6[ACD/Index Name] ,7-dihydro-
no[5,6-d][1,3]dioxo[German][ACD/IUPAC Name] l-6-amin
no[5,6-d][1,3]dioxo[ACD/IUPAC Name] l-6-amine
no[5,6-d][1,3]dioxo[French][ACD/IUPAC Name] l-6-amine
no [5,6-d][1,3] dio[ACD/IUPAC Name] xol-6-amine
- MDAI (5,6-Methylene
- MDAI (5,6-Methylene
dioxy-2-aminoindane ) 1.0 mg/ml in Acet onitrile
A selective serotonin releasing agent which is rarely used without a stimulant to obtain desirable effects. Previously believed not to be neuruotoxic, however MDAI has been implicated in several lethal and non-lethal intoxications, and as such may pose more of a risk to health than previously believed.
Notably, this compound primarily produces the non-stimulating effects of prototypical entactogens like MDMA such as sedation, muscle relaxation, and tactile enhancement. MDAI was developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.
It acts as a putatively non-neurotoxic and highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) with neglible effects on dopamine and norepinephrine. This reportedly limits its potential at producing overtly invigorating, prosocial or euphoric effects. MDAI has been marketed alongside research chemical entactogens like 5-MAPB, 5-APB, and 6-APB as a legal, grey-market alternative to MDMA.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDAI, and it has a limited history of human use. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
This creates an indane group, a bicyclic moeity containing a benzene ring fused to a pentane ring. MDAI contains an amino group NH2 bound to R2 of the indane ring.
MDAI also contains two oxygen substitutions at R5 and R6 joined by a methylene bridge to form a methylenedioxy group. MDAI is structurally related to 2-AI, differing by a methylenedioxy ring.
|Avg. Mass||177.1998 Da|
|Monoisotopic Mass||177.078979 Da|
|MDAI Duration Data|
Interactions and Synergies
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- The focus and anxiety caused by stimulants is magnified by psychedelics and results in an increased risk of thought loops
- The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally uneccessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics. Combination of the stimulating effects may be uncomfortable.
- No unexpected interactions, though likely to increase blood pressure but not an issue with sensible doses. Moving around on high doses of this combination may be ill advised due to risk of physical injury.
- Risk of tachycardia, hypertension, and manic states
- This combination of stimulants will increase strain on the heart. It is not generally worth it as cocaine has a mild blocking effect on dopamine releasers like amphetamine
- This combination of stimulants is not generally necessary and may increase strain on the heart, as well as potentially causing anxiety and greater physical discomfort.
- Drinking on stimulants is risky because the sedative effects of the alcohol are reduced, and these are what the body uses to gauge drunkenness. This typically leads to excessive drinking with greatly reduced inhibitions, high risk of liver damage and increased dehydration. They will also allow you to drink past a point where you might normally pass out, increasing the risk. If you do decide to do this then you should set a limit of how much you will drink each hour and stick to it, bearing in mind that you will feel the alcohol and the stimulant less. Extended release formulations may severely impede sleep, further worsening the hangover.
- Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
- Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of opiates. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
- The combined stimulating effects of the two can lead to an uncomfortable body-load, while the focusing effects of amphetamine can easily lead to thought loops. Coming down from amphetamines while the DOx is still active can be quite anxiogenic.
- Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and in extreme cases heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences. In extreme cases, they can result in severe vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and in extreme cases heart failure.
- The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally unnecessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics.
- Both substances raise heart rate, in extreme cases, panic attacks caused by these drugs have led to more serious heart issues.
- This combination can easily lead to hypermanic states
- Both can dull each other's effects, so if one wears off before the other it's possible to overdose due to the lack of counteraction
|Marguis Test Result|
MDAI has been shown to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and has a selective affinity for the serotonin receptor. Studies have shown that the brains of animals treated with MDAI have greater extracellular concentrations of monoamine neural transmitters, most significantly serotonin. For comparison, MDAI is similar in potency with releasing serotonin to MDA, but significantly less potent than MDMA. This is done by inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse, essentially allowing them to accumulate, be reused and cause entactogenic effects.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Sedation - The biggest difference between MDAI and MDMA is that due to a comparative lack of dopamine reuptake inhibition, MDAI primarily results in moderate sedation and can therefore discourage physical activities such as running, dancing or climbing.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of MDAI can be described as a moderate to extreme euphoric, soft and warm tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Tactile enhancement
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Increased perspiration
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Dehydration - Feelings of dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with MDAI. This effect is a product of an increased heart rate and an extreme motivation to engage in strenuous physical activities. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated (especially when out dancing in a hot environment) there have been a number of users suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking, so it is advised that users simply sip at water and never over-drink.
- Difficulty urinating - Much like MDMA, higher doses of MDAI result in difficulty urinating. This is an effect that is completely temporary and harmless. It is most likely due to the promotion of the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which is the mechanism responsible for this side effect within MDMA. Anti-diuretic hormone is responsible for regulating urination. Difficulty urinating can be lessened by simply relaxing, but can be significantly relieved by placing a hot flannel over the genitals to warm them up and encourage blood flow. Some have reported that simply listening to the sound of running water also helps (such as a tap/faucet).
- Temporary erectile dysfunction
The cognitive effects of MDAI can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of MDAI is described by many as one of euphoria and feelings of love or empathy. It contains a number of typical entactogenic cognitive effects. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
- Anxiety suppression
- Cognitive euphoria - Strong emotional euphoria and feelings of happiness are present within MDAI and are a direct result of serotonin release.
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This particular effect is not as pronounced, powerful and therapeutic as that of MDMA or 2C-B. It is the most obvious and noticeable effect within any MDAI experience and dominates the head space.
- Increased music appreciation
- Immersion enhancement
- Thought deceleration
- Time distortion
The visual effects of MDAI only occur at higher doses and are reported to be only subtly psychedelic in nature. These generally include:
- Johnson MP, Conarty PF, Nichols DE. [3H]monoamine releasing and uptake inhibition properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine analogs. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Jul 23;200(1):9-16. PMID 1685125
- Nichols DE, Brewster WK, Johnson MP, Oberlender R, Riggs RM. Nonneurotoxic tetralin and indan analogs of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine (MDA). Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 1990 Feb;33(2):703-10. PMID 1967651
- Nichols DE, Johnson MP, Oberlender R. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a non-neurotoxic analog of p-iodoamphetamine. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1991 Jan;38(1):135-9. PMID 1826785
- Johnson MP, Frescas SP, Oberlender R, Nichols DE. Synthesis and Pharmacological Examination of 1-(3-Methoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane and 5-Methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindan: Similarities to 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methamphetamine (MDMA). Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1991;34:1662-1668.
- Johnson MP, Huang XM, Nichols DE. Serotonin neurotoxicity in rats after combined treatment with a dopaminergic agent followed by a non-neurotoxic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) analog. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1991 Dec;40(4):915-22. PMID 1726189
- Nichols DE, Marona-Lewicka D, Huang X, Johnson MP. Novel serotonergic agents. Drug Design and Discovery. 1993;9(3-4):299-312. PMID 8400010
- Sprague JE, Johnson MP, Schmidt CJ, Nichols DE. Studies on the mechanism of p-chloroamphetamine neurotoxicity. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1996 Oct 25;52(8):1271-7. PMID 8937435
- Cozzi NV, Frescas S, Marona-Lewicka D, Huang X, Nichols DE. Indan analogs of fenfluramine and norfenfluramine have reduced neurotoxic potential. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1998 Mar;59(3):709-15. PMID 9512076
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- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
- AK Scientific Z1725
- AKos AKOS005762887
- Amadis Chemical A806492
- American Custom Chemicals Corp CHM0077670
- Angene AGN-PC-0JMK7Q
- Aurora Fine Chemicals K08.526.075
- BGS International BG04477940
- BindingDB 50010589
- Boerchem BC654748
- ChEMBL CHEMBL162375
- Chembo Pharma KB-196322
- ChemIDplus 132741812
- ChemShuttle 101313
- Chemspace CSC009871784
- DiscoveryGate 125558
- eNovation Chemicals K47427
- EPA DSSTox DTXCID6080232
- FDA UNII - NLM 0DMJ6G3XBF
- FDA UNII - NLM UNII: 0DMJ6G3XBF
- Finetech Industry FT-0655551
- GuiChem GZ006645
- iChemical EBD32573
- Jalor-Chem I01-7284
- LabNetwork LN01297439
- LGC Standards LGCAMP1275.05-11
- LGC Standards LGCFOR1275.05
- Mcule MCULE-8673855802
- PubChem 125558
- PubMed 1726189
- PubMed 1979813
- Shanghai IS Chemical Technology I01-7284
- Springer Nature Benzocaine
- Springer Nature Serotonin Release is Responsible for the Locomotor Hyperactivity in Rats Induced by Derivatives of Amphetamine Related to MDMA
- Wikidata Q6715120
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- Yuhao Chemical LL2104
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- Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
- PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
- Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
Additional APIs were used to construct this information. Thanks for ChemSpider, NCBI, PubChem etc.
Data is constantly updated so please check back later to see if there is any more available information on this substance.