The alien phenomenon has long fascinated humans across various cultures and time periods. While some believe in extraterrestrial life forms visiting Earth, others argue that these experiences are products of the human mind, influenced by factors such as psychedelic substances and altered states of consciousness. In this article, we will explore how the psychedelic experience can be used to interpret and understand the alien phenomenon.

Throughout history, there have been numerous accounts of encounters with extraterrestrial beings and their unexplainable phenomena. To gain a deeper understanding of these experiences, some individuals have turned to psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin (found in “magic mushrooms”). By exploring the realms of consciousness induced by these substances, they attempt to interpret the alien phenomenon from alternative perspectives.

While there is no single point of origin for this idea, one of the earliest known examples can be traced back to ancient Sumerian texts from around 400 BCE. These texts describe “Anunnaki,” supernatural beings who were said to have come to Earth from another planet called Nibiru to mine for gold. The Anunnaki were depicted as having strange, otherworldly appearances, which may be considered early precursors to modern-day alien imagery.

The imagery of the alien has been present throughout human history, from ancient cave paintings to modern-day science fiction films. However, it wasn’t until the early 20th century that the extraterrestrial “alien” concept began to take shape as we know it today. This new interpretation of the “otherworldly being” emerged primarily due to advancements in technology, particularly radio communication and space exploration. Prior to this point, depictions of beings from other worlds were often based on mythological creatures or exaggerated descriptions of real-life races or individuals.

The interpretation of the alien phenomenon through the lens of psychedelics has also given rise to various artistic and spiritual movements. Artists like Alex Grey, who creates intricate paintings depicting transcendental experiences, draw inspiration from both psychedelic experiences and encounters with non-human entities. Similarly, the use of psychedelics has played a significant role in shaping contemporary religious practices, particularly those focused on spiritual growth and connection with higher powers.

Carl Jung, the Collective Unconscious, and Alien Encounters

Carl Gustav Jung, the Swiss psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology, has left an indelible mark on the understanding of the human psyche. Although Jung did not explicitly delve into the concept of extraterrestrial life, his theories on archetypes, the collective unconscious, and symbolism offer significant insights into humanity’s fascination with aliens and unidentified flying objects (UFOs). This essay explores Jung’s thoughts on the symbolic representation of aliens in the human psyche, theories from other renowned psychologists, personal narratives, and psychedelic journeys, ultimately shedding light on how these otherworldly encounters could offer unique perspectives on self-realization and psychological transformation.

Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious forms a crucial foundation for this exploration. According to Jung, the collective unconscious comprises primordial images and archetypes universal to all humans, derived from our shared ancestral past. While aliens and UFOs are not specifically mentioned in Jung’s works, his theory provides a framework for interpreting the ubiquitous presence of these entities in our culture and individual psyches. It is plausible to argue that aliens, being representatives of ’the other’ or the ‘unknown,’ constitute an archetype embedded in our collective unconscious.

This concept of aliens as a symbol of the unknown can be traced back to Jung’s seminal work, “Man and His Symbols.” In it, Jung postulates that symbols arise from the unconscious as a means to communicate with consciousness, often encapsulating complex psychological concepts that defy verbal explanation. Aliens and UFOs can be interpreted as symbols of the vast, mysterious, and unexplored aspects of our psyche and existence. This symbolic representation is consistently found in cultural narratives, literature, and personal encounters.

Jung’s “Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies” further underscores this interpretation. Here, he refrains from discussing the physical reality of UFOs, choosing instead to focus on their psychological implications. He views the increasing reports of UFO sightings during his time as a collective psychic phenomenon, symbolizing a shift in human consciousness. He suggested that the round shape of the UFOs symbolized wholeness and completeness (akin to the Jungian concept of the ‘Self’), perhaps indicating a deep-seated yearning for unity amid the fragmented post-war world.

However, Jung’s interpretations are not the only psychological perspectives on the subject. Renowned psychologist Jacques Vallée, a contemporary explorer of this field, shares a similar perspective. Vallée posits that UFO encounters could be a modern manifestation of a broader historical phenomenon - akin to religious apparitions or fairy folklore - designed to reshape human consciousness. Both Jung and Vallée seem to agree that the phenomenon is more psychic than physical, potentially serving as a transformative catalyst for humanity.

Personal narratives and reports of alien encounters often highlight a profound shift in the experiencer’s perception of reality and self. These narratives frequently involve themes of unity, interconnectedness, and a deeper understanding of the universe. From the Jungian perspective, such experiences could be viewed as instances of individuation, the process of becoming an ‘individual,’ or essentially, a separate, self-realizing being. The alien ‘other’ could then symbolize aspects of the unconscious psyche that need to be acknowledged and integrated for this individuation process to occur.

Psychedelic journeys provide another intriguing facet to this exploration. Increasingly recognized for their potential therapeutic value, psychedelic substances such as LSD, psilocybin, and DMT have often been reported to induce experiences of encountering alien entities. Strikingly similar to accounts of UFO abductions or visitations, these experiences tend to evoke a sense of profound interconnectedness and personal transformation. This suggests that, whether through an alien encounter or a psychedelic journey, humanity seeks union with the ‘other,’ leading to a transformative expansion of consciousness.

Jung situates his analysis of the UFO sightings within the context of his broader theory of archetypes and the collective unconscious. These concepts, foundational to Jung’s analytical psychology, propose the existence of universal, archaic patterns and images that are inherited rather than individually acquired. In this vein, Jung proposes that UFOs could be understood as an archetype representing a deep-rooted, universal aspect of the human psyche.

Jung observed that the incidence of reported UFO sightings dramatically increased following World War II, a time when humanity was grappling with the fear of nuclear annihilation and the existential angst of the Cold War. Given the synchronicity of these events, Jung suggests that the prevalence of UFO sightings may represent a collective psychic response to an intense period of uncertainty and fear.

Moreover, Jung focuses on the symbolic nature of the reported sightings, particularly emphasizing the saucer or disk-like shape of the UFOs. Drawing on his understanding of symbols, Jung postulates that the round shape of these objects is reminiscent of a ‘mandala’—a spiritual and ritualistic symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism representing the universe. In Jung’s theory, the mandala is a symbol of the ‘Self’ and embodies notions of wholeness, unity, and balance.

The increase in UFO sightings, therefore, could reflect a collective yearning for these qualities in a world that seemed increasingly fragmented and precarious. The ‘otherness’ of the alien also offered a stark contrast to the human, enabling the projection of humanity’s fears, hopes, and dreams onto these foreign entities.

Jung further notes that myths and dreams have traditionally served to connect us to the unconscious and to express its contents symbolically. Therefore, the phenomenon of flying saucers can be seen as a ‘modern myth,’ emerging from the depths of the collective unconscious to address specific psychosocial tensions of the era.

Interpreting the Alien Phenomenon through the Psychedelic Experience

Terence McKenna, an ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, and author, is revered as a modern counterculture icon for his thought-provoking ideas on nature, culture, technology, and psychedelics. His take on aliens and unidentified flying objects (UFOs) — as experienced through the lens of the psychedelic journey — diverges dramatically from conventional interpretations.

Perhaps the most significant starting point for McKenna’s perspective on aliens is his seminal “stoned ape” theory, as articulated in his book, “Food of the Gods.” This hypothesis posits that the evolution of human consciousness was significantly influenced by our hominid ancestors’ consumption of psilocybin mushrooms, a naturally occurring psychedelic substance. While not directly related to aliens, this theory highlights McKenna’s belief in the transformative potential of psychedelics — a cornerstone of his approach to understanding the alien phenomenon.

In his book, “True Hallucinations,” McKenna delves deeper into the intersection of psychedelics and extraterrestrial encounters. Here, he narrates his personal experiences in the Amazon, particularly a psychedelic encounter where he and his brother ingested a brew of local plants known as ayahuasca. McKenna describes a profound visionary experience, stating, “The hallucinations around me were like three-dimensional cartoons of tiny elves, gnomes, and fairies, singing songs in visible language.” He understood these entities, which he called ‘machine elves,’ as forms of alien intelligence.

Instead of viewing these encounters as merely hallucinatory, McKenna suggested that psychedelics serve as a means to access a different, parallel reality teeming with intelligent entities. He postulated, “The aliens are not coming from space, but from the future or a parallel dimension,” implying that these entities are reachable not by physical spacecraft, but via altered states of consciousness.

One of McKenna’s most oft-quoted sentiments, “Nature is the alien,” encapsulates his perception of extraterrestrial life. He proposed that our relationship with the natural world and its myriad forms of intelligence could be seen as the most fundamental example of ‘alien’ encounters. This perspective prompts a reconsideration of our definition of alien life and underscores the intrinsic connection between our consciousness and the universe.

A key concept in McKenna’s philosophy is the “Archaic Revival,” a term he coined to describe the return to premodern cultural practices and systems of knowledge, including the use of psychedelics. In this context, the increase in reported alien encounters is seen as part of humanity’s yearning to reconnect with the ‘Other’ — the realms of consciousness beyond our everyday experience. He wrote, “Alien is a state of mind,” emphasizing the potential of these encounters to prompt a deep reassessment of our worldview.

McKenna’s idea of aliens challenges the physical, materialistic interpretation of extraterrestrial life. Instead, he invites us to consider the alien as a manifestation of the unimaginable richness and complexity of consciousness itself — a symbol of the unknown that dwells within us and beyond us, accessible through the psychedelic journey.

The Wholly Other, The Ganz Andere, The Alien

Consciousness has been a fascinating topic for philosophers, scientists and laypeople alike. In this essay, we will explore what consciousness means and some of the different theories surrounding it. We will also discuss its significance to human experience and how it relates to other fields such as neuroscience and artificial intelligence.

To begin with, what exactly is consciousness? Some define it as awareness or perception, while others see it as something more fundamental. One theory suggests that consciousness arises from complex interactions between neurons in the brain. According to this view, when certain patterns of neural activity occur, they give rise to subjective experiences like sensations, thoughts and emotions.

Another popular theory is called panpsychism, which proposes that all matter has some degree of consciousness. This idea suggests that even atoms and subatomic particles may have some form of subjectivity. While this theory is still debated within the scientific community, it raises intriguing questions about the nature of reality itself.

In addition to these theoretical considerations, consciousness also has significant practical implications. For example, understanding consciousness can help us better understand disorders of consciousness, such as coma or vegetative state. It can also inform our approach to treating conditions like depression or anxiety, which are thought to involve disturbances in consciousness.

Consciousness is our ability to perceive ourselves as being separate from external objects; it’s our sense that we exist within time-space continuum rather than just experiencing moments without any context (i e , dreamless sleep). It’s also associated with subjectivity—the feeling that “I” am here now experiencing this moment rather than someone else experiencing it for me.

When people talk about having out-of-body experiences during trips they often refer them as “becoming one” with something outside themselves — whether that’s another person’s body/mind (as described above) or even God Himself! These kinds of experiences involve feelings ranging from euphoria (“I feel so happy right now”) all way down into terror (“I don’t know who I am anymore”). But regardless if your trip was good or bad you’ll always remember it because there were no thoughts involved; only sensations flowing freely throughout your entire nervous system without interruption from anything but yourself.

I have had the privilege of studying the myriad ways in which humans conceptualize and perceive the world around them, their own consciousness, and the divine. To begin with, let’s turn to Mircea Eliade, a Romanian historian of religion who dedicated his life to the study of religious phenomenology. He proposed the idea of the “sacred” as a universal human experience, a profound manifestation of the divine. He postulated, “Every sacred space implies a hierophany, an irruption of the sacred that results in detaching a territory from the surrounding cosmic milieu and making it qualitatively different.” Eliade pointed out that human consciousness is integral to recognizing these sacred instances. It is the conscious recognition of the sacred that allows us to perceive the divine and connect with it, transforming our ordinary perception of reality.

Rudolf Otto, a German theologian and religious scholar, introduced the concept of “numinous” in his influential work, “The Idea of the Holy.” The numinous, a non-rational, non-sensory experience or feeling whose primary and immediate object is outside the self, is a perception of the divine that deeply affects human consciousness. Otto argued that this consciousness of the numinous is at the root of all religions. He famously wrote, “The feeling of it may at times come sweeping like a gentle tide, pervading the mind with a tranquil mood of deepest worship.”

The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, recognized for his analytical psychology, emphasized the role of archetypes and the collective unconscious in shaping our experiences and perceptions of reality. For Jung, consciousness played a pivotal role in accessing these universal, archetypal symbols, which often have religious or spiritual significance. He stated, “The archetypes are, as it were, the hidden foundations of the conscious mind, or, to use another comparison, the roots which the psyche has sunk not in the world of the body but in the world of the spirit.” Jung viewed these archetypal symbols as a bridge between the human mind and the divine.

Finally, American anthropologist Ralph Linton posited that every culture provides a set of “templates” or models for individual behavior and thought, which can greatly influence personal consciousness. Linton suggested that an individual’s perception of the divine or spiritual forces is often significantly shaped by these cultural templates. He wrote, “Culture provides the raw material from which individuals compose their own personalities.”

The four scholars mentioned above represent a mere glimpse into the extensive dialogue on the topic of consciousness and the divine within the realm of comparative religion. Their perspectives illustrate that across cultures and religions, human consciousness is perceived as a critical interface with the divine, the spiritual, and the otherworldly. Whether it is through the recognition of the sacred, the experience of the numinous, the accessing of archetypal symbols, or the adherence to cultural templates, our consciousness offers a bridge to something that is not of this world and helps us navigate and make sense of our spiritual experiences.

In his book, “The Idea of the Holy,” Rudolf Otto introduced the concept of numinous experience as a way of understanding the sacred or holy dimension of reality. According to Otto, the Ganz Andere (the wholly other) represents the ultimate mystery beyond all human comprehension or description.

Otto argued that the Ganz Andere refers to the transcendent ground of all existence, which lies beyond the reach of human knowledge and language. He described it as an “unconditioned” or “absolute” reality that exists independently of any finite or conditioned being. The Ganz Andere is not just another name for God but rather points to the very source and origin of everything that exists. It is the ultimate reality behind all appearances and phenomena.

In Hinduism, Brahma is considered as the creator deity and one of the three major gods of the Hindu pantheon, alongside Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma is often associated with the concept of the ultimate reality, but the understanding of this concept varies among different Hindu philosophical traditions.

In some interpretations, Brahma is seen as the supreme, eternal, and all-pervading reality that encompasses and manifests in all things in the universe. This understanding aligns with the concept of Brahman, which represents the absolute and infinite reality that transcends the physical world. According to this perspective, Brahma is the personal aspect or manifestation of Brahman responsible for creation. Brahma is known as the Ultimate Reality.

For Otto, the encounter with the Ganz Andere is a fundamental aspect of religious experience. He believed that when humans come face to face with this mysterious and transcendent reality, they are overcome by a sense of awe, reverence, and fear. This experience is characterized by a feeling of insignificance and smallness in the face of something vastly greater than oneself. At the same time, however, there is also a sense of wonder and fascination, as one glimpses a reality that exceeds all human categories and concepts.

According to Otto, the Ganz Andere is experienced primarily through the faculty of intuition, which he saw as the direct apprehension of reality itself. Intuition is not simply a matter of intellectual insight or rational understanding but involves a deeper level of knowing that goes beyond the limitations of the conscious mind. When we encounter the Ganz Andere, our ordinary modes of perception and thought become overwhelmed, and we are left with a sense of mystical rapture that defies verbal expression.

Mircea Eliade was one of the most influential scholars of religion in the 20th century. His work focused primarily on the study of comparative religions and their origins, as well as the nature of religious experience. In his seminal book “The Sacred and The Profane,” Eliade discusses at length the concept of the Ganz Andere or the wholly other, which he refers to as the numinous.

According to Eliade, the numinous represents the fundamental reality that underlies all existence. It is something that transcends human understanding and can only be approached through various forms of symbolism and metaphor. For Eliade, the numinous is not just a philosophical abstraction but rather a living force that permeates every aspect of human life. He argues that all religious experience is fundamentally rooted in our encounter with the numinous.

Eliade furthermore suggests that there are two basic types of relationships that humans can have with the numinous: hierophany and theophany. Hierophany refers to those experiences where the divine manifests itself directly within the physical world, often in the form of natural phenomena such as storms or earthquakes. Theophany, on the other hand, refers to those experiences where the divine manifests itself indirectly through various forms of symbolic representation, such as ritual or mythology.

This experience is precisely what happens at the heart of the Psychedelic experience. While both “The Ganz Andere” and the “Alien” experiences involve encounters with entities or realms beyond everyday reality, they have different origins and contexts. “The Ganz Andere” is a broader philosophical concept that encompasses various religious and mystical experiences, whereas the “Alien” experiences are specific to the subjective visions reported by individuals under the influence of DMT.

The connection between the Ganz Andere (German for “entirely other”) and the alien experienced during psychedelic experiences has been a subject of interest among researchers and users of these substances alike. The term “alien” refers to the feeling of being disconnected from one’s surroundings or self, while the Ganz Andere represents a sense of radical otherness or alternate reality.

One way to understand this relationship is through the lens of phenomenology, which focuses on the subjective experience of individuals. According to phenomenological philosophy, our perception of reality is shaped by our consciousness and how we interpret sensory information. Psychedelics can alter this process by disrupting normal patterns of brain activity, allowing for new modes of perception and awareness.

Firstly, we need to examine the central ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. Jungian psychology posits that our collective unconscious is a reservoir of archetypes, universal symbols, and motifs that shape our behavior, thoughts, and perceptions. Jung believed that alien motifs could signify a psychological projection of our unconscious minds, symbolizing the alienated parts of ourselves – the elements that are ‘foreign’ or ‘unknown’ within us. In “Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies”, Jung writes:

“In the threatening situation of the world today, when people are beginning to see that everything is at stake, the projection-creating fantasy soars beyond the realm of earthly organizations and powers into the heavens…”

In the context of reported alien encounters, we can conjecture that these experiences may stem from an externalization of inner psychological conflicts or unprocessed emotions. This perspective is not to invalidate the personal experiences of individuals but rather to explore a psychological interpretation.

The prevalence of such encounters during psychedelic experiences could be interpreted through a Jungian lens as well. Psychedelics might facilitate access to the deeper layers of our unconscious minds, unearthing archetypes that typically remain hidden. The ‘alien’ might symbolize the vastly unfamiliar territory of our own unconscious psyche, externalized as a separate entity during the psychedelic experience. Dr. Rick Strassman, a medical researcher who conducted extensive studies on DMT, observed these phenomena and stated:

“These worlds are usually invisible to us and our instruments and are not accessible using our normal state of consciousness. However, just as likely as the theory that these worlds exist ‘out there’ is that they are purely internal and psychological in origin.”

The concept of Ganz Andere suggests that there exists a fundamental disconnection between our everyday consciousness and the altered states of mind achieved through psychedelics. The idea that these two seemingly disparate realms may actually be two sides of the same coin is intriguing, as it implies that there may be a deeper underlying unity between them. To explore this notion further, we must first examine the nature of psychedelic experiences themselves, as well as the ways in which they challenge our conventional notions of self and reality.

The concept of extraterrestrial life has fascinated humans for centuries. From ancient mythologies to modern science fiction, stories abound of beings from other worlds visiting Earth. While some dismiss these accounts as mere fantasy, others believe they may hold truthful insights into our inner workings. In this regard, the idea of aliens representing something within human psyche is worth exploring.

In recent decades, there has been a growing fascination with the idea of extraterrestrial life and its potential impact on human society. Among the many phenomena associated with this topic, the concept of the alien has emerged as a powerful symbol in the popular imagination. But what does the Alien represent in human psyche, and how do reported alien encounters shed light on this question?

While Jungian psychology provides a useful framework for understanding the psychological significance of alien encounters, it is also important to consider the role of other factors such as cultural and social influences. For example, the popular media’s portrayal of aliens as malevolent or benevolent beings can shape public perceptions and experiences of these phenomena.

Psychologists have also explored the link between alien encounters and the psychedelic experience. Some researchers have suggested that certain hallucinogenic substances can trigger experiences that are similar to those reported by individuals who have had alien encounters.

Terence McKenna believed that the alien encounter represented a collective archetype that was emerging within human consciousness. He argued that the increasing number of reported cases indicated that humanity was undergoing a radical shift in its perception of reality. McKenna’s theory suggests that the alien encounter is a manifestation of the collective shadow of humanity - a repressed aspect of our psyche that contains all the aspects of ourselves that we have deemed unacceptable or taboo. The alien represents the ultimate outsider, someone who embodies everything that is foreign and threatening to us. By confronting this entity, we are forced to face our own fears and limitations, leading to a deep transformation of our consciousness.

This perspective is supported by numerous reports of alien abduction experiences, many of which involve themes of sexual violation or medical experimentation. These experiences can be seen as symbolizing the repression and denial of certain aspects of our own nature, such as our sexuality or our instinctual drives. When these forces are denied expression, they can become distorted and take on a malevolent quality, much like the stereotypical image of the evil alien invader.


Therefore, it’s not entirely far-fetched to consider the possibility of a connection between Jungian psychology and the study of extraterrestrial phenomena. While these two disciplines appear to operate on distinct planes—one focusing on the inner workings of the human mind and the other investigating potentially external sources of mystery—both share a common goal of understanding and making sense of the unknown. Exploring this possible linkage could offer valuable insights into the complex interplay between human consciousness and the larger cosmic forces that shape our reality.