Psychedelics are substances (natural or laboratory made) which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might hallcuniate visually and auditorily.
This is a commonly used substance with well known effects, but that does not guarantee the substance will be safe. The safety profile has been established based on usage data commonly reported by others.
Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most powerful and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.
LSD Also known as:
- (+)-lysergic acid d
methyl-9,10-didehyd[German][ACD/IUPAC Name] roergolin-8-carboxa mid
methyl-9,10-didehyd[ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
méthyl-9,10-didéhyd[French][ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
- Blotter Acid
- Blue Acid
- Blue Cheer
- Blue Mist
- Blue Star
- D-lysergic acid die
ide, 9,10-didehydro[ACD/Index Name] -N,N-diethyl-6-meth yl-, (8β)-
- Lysergamide, N,N-di
- Lysergic acid dieth
- Lysergsaure Diethyl
- MFCD00135795[MDL number]
-6-methyl-6,11-diaz atetracyclo[184.108.40.206 2,7 .012,16 ]hexadeca-1(16),2,9 ,12,14-pentaene-4-c arboxamide
-6-methyl-6,11-diaz atetracyclo[220.127.116.11 2,7.012,16]hexadeca -1(16),2,9,12,14-pe ntaene-4-carboxamide
l-7-methyl-6,6a,8,9 -tetrahydro-4H-indo lo[4,3-fg]quinoline -9-carboxamide
-N,N-diethyl-6-meth ylergoline-8-carbox amide
methyl-9,10-didehyd[ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
- 4-25-00-00939 (Beil
stein Handbook Refe[Beilstein] rence)
diethyl-6-methyl-er goline-8-β-carboxam ide
- Bart Simpson
- Big F
- Brown Dots
- California Sunshine
- Cherry To
- Chocolate Chips
- Contact Lens
- Dextrolysergic acid
- Diethylamid kyselin
- d-Lysergic acid det
- D-Lysergic acid N,N
mide, 9,10-didehydr o-N,N-diethyl-6-met hyl-
amide, 9,10-didehyd ro-N,N-diethyl-6-me thyl-
- Gelatin Chips
- Heavenly Blue
- Instant Zen
- Lysergate diethylam
- Lysergaure diethyla
- lysergic acid amide
- Mean Green
- Mellow Yellow
l-9,10-didehydroerg[ACD/IUPAC Name] oline-8-carboxamide
- Orange Mushroom
- Orange Sunshine
- Orange Wedges
-diethyl-6-methyler goline-8b-carboxami de
- Paper Acid
- Pearly gates
- Purple Haze
- Purple Microdot
- Royal Blue
- Strawberry Fields
- Sugar Lum
- The Hawk
- Wedding bells
- Wedding Bells Acid
- White Light
- Window Pane
LSD is a popular psychedelic with a relatively long history of use and research, and as such is known to be relatively safe despite its extremely high potency. It is the archetypical psychedelic to which all others are compared, and remains in popular usage.
It is considered to be the the best known, most researched, and culturally influential psychedelic substance. It is thought to produce its psychedelic effects by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain, although the precise mechanism is not fully understood. The psychoactive effects of LSD were first discovered in 1943 by Albert Hofmann, a Swiss chemist working for Sandoz Laboratories.
In the 1950s it was distributed by Sandoz under the name Delysid for use as an experimental drug in psychotherapy and scientific research. During this period, LSD generated widespread interest from clinicians, researchers, and intellectuals and was notoriously the subject of a secret investigation by the U. S.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for potential applications in “mind control”. Recreational LSD use became a central part of the 1960s youth counterculture movement which eventually led to its prohibition in 1971. Following a 40 year hiatus, research into the therapeutic applications of LSD has experienced a revival.
It is currently being investigated for the treatment of a number of ailments including alcoholism, addiction, cluster headache, and anxiety associated with terminal illness. LSD remains in widespread illicit use for recreational and spiritual purposes. The lifetime prevalence of LSD use among adults is in the range of 6-8%.
Subjective effects include open and closed-eye visuals, time distortion, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, euphoria, and ego loss. LSD is commonly reported to be able to evoke mystical-type experiences that can facilitate self-reflection and personal growth. It is considered by some to be the first modern entheogen, a category which is otherwise limited to traditional plant preparations or extracts.
Unlike other highly prohibited substances, LSD has not been proven to be physiologically toxic or addictive. However, adverse psychological reactions such as severe anxiety, paranoia, delusions, and psychosis are always possible, particularly for those predisposed to psychiatric disorders. As a result, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
However, its psychoactive properties were not discovered until five years later when Hofmann claimed to have accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical before proceeding to ride his bike home. The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943. Hofmann ingested 250 micrograms (µg) of LSD, believing it would be a threshold dose based on the doses of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated and was impressed by its profound mind-altering effects. In 1947, Sandoz introduced LSD to the medical community under the name Delysid as an experimental tool to induce temporary psychotic-like states in normals (“model-psychosis”) and later to enhance psychotherapeutic treatments (“psycholytic” or “psychedelic” therapy). LSD had a major impact in the areas of scientific research and psychiatry. Within 15 years of its release, research on LSD and other hallucinogens generated over 1,000 scientific papers and was prescribed to over 40,000 patients. In the 1950s, the US Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named MK-ULTRA that would conduct clandestine research investigating LSD for applications in mind control and chemical warfare. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public without their knowledge or consent, which resulted in at least one death. In 1963, the Sandoz patents for LSD expired. Several prominent intellectuals, including Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Al Hubbard began to advocate for the consumption of LSD. LSD became a central part of the youth-driven counterculture of the 1960s. Along with other hallucinogens, LSD was advocated by new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Leary, Huxley, Alan Watts and Arthur Koestler who, according to L. R. Veysey, profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States.
The last FDA approved study of LSD in patients ended in 1980, while a study in healthy volunteers was made in the late 1980s. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993.
LSD's chemical structure consists of a bicyclic hexahydroindole ring fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (lysergic acid).
At carbon 8 of the quinoline an N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.
LSD is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group. LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8.
LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R).
The three other stereoisomers of LSD do not have psychoactive properties. LSD occurs as a colorless, odorless crystal in its pure form.
LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine (especially in solution).
Its potency may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at cold temperatures around 0°C or below, but will slowly degrade at normal room temperature (25°C).
|Common Name||Lysergic acid diethylamide|
|Systematic name||Lysergic acid diethylamide|
|SMILES||CCN(CC)C(=O)[[email protected]]1CN([[email protected]@H]2Cc3c[nH]c4c3c(ccc4)C2=C1)C|
|Avg. Mass||323.432 Da|
|Monoisotopic Mass||323.199768 Da|
|LSD Duration Data|
- Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and psychedelics also cause occasional seizures.
Internationally, the UN 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances requires its parties to prohibit LSD. Hence, it is illegal in all parties to the convention, which includes the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and most of Europe. Medical and scientific research with LSD in humans is permitted under the 1971 UN Convention, although has been reported to be difficult to actually carry out in practice.
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- American Custom Chemicals Corp API0007621
- American Custom Chemicals Corp API0015149
- American Custom Chemicals Corp BAR0000900
- American Custom Chemicals Corp RDL0008840
- American Custom Chemicals Corp RDL0014483
- Angene AGN-PC-0OBC5D
- Aurora Fine Chemicals K04.154.465
- BIND (no longer updated) 109
- BindingDB 21342
- BindingDB 50241702
- BioCyc CPD-14458
- ChEBI CHEBI:6605
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChEMBL CHEMBL263881
- ChemIDplus 000050373
- ChemIDplus 015232630
- ChemIDplus 024656415
- ChemIDplus 032426576
- Collaborative Drug Discovery 47989
- CommonChemistry.org 50-37-3
- CSDeposition Service DB04829
- DiscoveryGate 208570
- DiscoveryGate 5761
- DrugBank DB04829
- DSigDB d4boss_538
- DSigDB d4ctd_6228
- DSigDB d4ttd_9094
- eMolecules 591396
- EPA DSSTox DTXCID003231
- Erowid LSD
- FDA UNII - NLM 8NA5SWF92O
- FDA UNII - NLM UNII: 8NA5SWF92O
- Finetech Industry FT-0670891
- Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 17
- IUPHAR-DB 5310
- Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 14832
- KEGG C07542
- LabNetwork LN01287284
- Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary 5761
- LeadScope LS-64351
- LGC Standards LGCAMP1346.00-11
- LGC Standards LGCAMP1346.00-13
- LGC Standards LGCFOR1346.00
- LGC Standards MM1346.00
- MassBank JP002800
- MassBank WA001253
- MassBank WA001254
- MassBank WA001255
- MassBank WA001256
- MassBank WA001257
- MMDB 147043
- OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details
- OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details
- PDB 7LD
- PubChem 5761
- PubMed 11317225
- PubMed 12213075
- PubMed 4165370
- PubMed 4176897
- PubMed 4985239
- Royal Society of Chemistry B615669J
- Royal Society of Chemistry B906391A
- Sabio-RK 9647
- Sigma-Aldrich CERILLIAN-L-001
- Sigma-Aldrich CERILLIAN-L-005
- Sigma-Aldrich L-001
- Sigma-Aldrich L-005
- Sigma-Aldrich L7007
- Sigma-Aldrich SIGMA-L7007
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- Springer Nature Cross-tolerance studies of serotonin receptors involved in behavioral effects of LSD in rats
- Springer Nature Determination of psilocin, bufotenine, LSD and its metabolites in serum, plasma and urine by SPE-LC-MS/MS
- Springer Nature Development and validation of a rapid turboflow LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in serum and urine samples of emergency toxicological cases
- Springer Nature Discriminative stimulus properties of pizotifen maleate (BC105): a putative serotonin antagonist
- Springer Nature Dissociation of multiple effects of acute LSD on exploratory behavior in rats by ritanserin and propranolol
- Springer Nature Dopamine D4 receptor involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects in rats of LSD, but not the phenethylamine hallucinogen DOI
- Springer Nature Drug effects on the repeated generalization of a visual discrimination acquired under one trial per day conditions
- Springer Nature Drug-induced stimulus control and the concept of breaking point: LSD and quipazine
- Springer Nature Drugs and visual perception: Effects of LSD, morphine and chlorpromazine on accuracy, bias and speed
- Springer Nature Early preclinical studies of discriminable sedative and hallucinogenic drug effects
- Springer Nature Effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine and related compounds on the isolated heart ofPila globosa (Gastropoda: Mollusca)
- Springer Nature Effect of lisuride and LSD on monoamine synthesis after axotomy or reserpine treatment in rat brain
- Springer Nature Effect of LSD on mitotic and meiotic plant chromosomes
- Springer Nature Effect of LSD-25 on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of mice and monkeys
- Springer Nature Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on monoamine content in some nuclei of the mesencephalon and hypothalamus
- Springer Nature Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide on permeability of the tissue-blood barriers in rats
- Springer Nature Effects of Cannabis sativa and lysergic acid diethylamide on a visual discrimination task in pigeons
- Springer Nature Effects of dopaminergic and cholinergic drugs, naloxone and l-prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide on LSD-induced catalepsy
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD and BOL on the catecholamine synthesis and turnover in various brain regions
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD on open field performance in rats
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD on the spontaneous and evoked activity of retinal and geniculate ganglion cells
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD-25 on avoidance behavior and locomotor activity in mice
- Springer Nature Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide on the spontaneous activity and visual receptive fields of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat
- Springer Nature Effects of single and multiple dose LSD on endogenous levels of brain tyrosine and catecholamines
- Springer Nature Effects on in vitro brain protein synthesis of a translational inhibitor isolated from rabbit brain following intravenous administration of LSD
- Springer Nature Evidence of catecholamine mediation in the u2018Aberrantu2019 behaviour induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the rat
- Springer Nature Generalization of morphine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) stimulus properties to narcotic analgesics
- Springer Nature Hallucinogen-induced rotational behavior in rats
- Springer Nature Hallucinogenic drug interactions with neurotransmitter receptor binding sites in human cortex
- Springer Nature Hallucinogens as discriminative stimuli in animals: LSD, phenethylamines, and tryptamines
- Springer Nature Impairment by lysergic acid diethylamide of accuracy in performance of a delayed alternation test in monkeys
- Springer Nature Interaction between narcotic antagonist (naloxone) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the rat
- Springer Nature Interactions of metergoline with diazepam, quipazine, and hallucinogenic drugs on a conflict behavior in the rat
- Springer Nature Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the LSD- and L-5-HTP-induced suppression of lordotic behavior in the female rat
- Springer Nature LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor
- Springer Nature Lisuride and LSD: Dopaminergic and serotonergic interactions in the u201cserotonin syndromeu201d
- Springer Nature Long-lasting subjective effects of LSD in normal subjects
- Springer Nature LSD and structural analogs: pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature LSD as an agonist at mesolimbic dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature LSD but not lisuride disrupts prepulse inhibition in rats by activating the 5-HT2A receptor
- Springer Nature LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers
- Springer Nature LSD enhances the emotional response to music
- Springer Nature LSD-induced alterations of investigatory responding in rats
- Springer Nature LSD-induced alterations of locomotor patterns and exploration in rats
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as a discriminative cue: Drugs with similar stimulus properties
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide affects blood flow to specific areas of the conscious rat brain
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide antagonizes shaking induced in rats by five chemically different compounds
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide: Evidence for stimulation of pituitary dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide: Morphological study of its effect on synapses
- Springer Nature Mefloquine and psychotomimetics share neurotransmitter receptor and transporter interactions in vitro
- Springer Nature Mescaline and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as discriminative stimuli
- Springer Nature Neutralization of LSD by active immunization
- Springer Nature Observations on direct and cross tolerance with LSD and d-amphetamine in man
- Springer Nature Oxidation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by peroxidases: a new metabolic pathway
- Springer Nature Persistent effects of chronic clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses to LSD in mice
- Springer Nature Plasma creatine phosphokinase levels in rats following lysergic acid diethylamide
- Springer Nature Possible involvement of the central dopaminergic system in the antireserpine effect of LSD
- Springer Nature Quipazine-induced stimulus control in the rat
- Springer Nature Relationships of psychotomimetic to anti-serotonin potencies of congeners of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25)
- Springer Nature Responses of the flexor reflex to LSD, tryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, methoxamine, and d-amphetamine in acute and chronic spinal rats
- Springer Nature Reversibility of changes in the rat brain due to prolonged administration of lysergide (LSD)
- Springer Nature Serotonergic/glutamatergic interactions: the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor ligands in rats trained with LSD and PCP as discriminative stimuli
- Springer Nature Serotonin2 receptor agonists and serotonergic anorectic drugs affect ratsu2019 performance differently in a five-choice serial reaction time task
- Springer Nature The 5-HT1A receptor and the stimulus effects of LSD in the rat
- Springer Nature The effect of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human subjects tolerant to lysergic acid diethylamide
- Springer Nature The effects of LSD in the guinea-pig ileum
- Springer Nature The lack of effect of LSD 25 on amygdaloid and cortical attention responses
- Springer Nature The role of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs I: Antagonist correlation analysis
- Springer Nature The time-dependent stimulus effects of R(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methamphetamine (DOM): implications for drug-induced stimulus control as a method for the study of hallucinogenic agents
- Springer Nature u201eWir begleiten Patienten auf der Reise nach innenu201c
- The Merck Index Online cs000000011606
- Thieme Chemistry SD-010-00001
- Thomson Pharma 00369002
- Thomson Pharma 00509391
- Thomson Pharma 01384229
- Toxin, Toxin-Target Database T3D3582
- Wikidata Q23118
- Wikipedia LSD
- Wikipedia Lysergic_acid_diethylamide
- xPharm 8843
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