Psychedelics are drugs which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations. These chemicals offer some of the most intense psychological experiences and care should be taken when ingesting them.
This is a commonly used substance with well known and widely available human consumption data. This does not guarantee that the substance will be safe. The safety profile has been established based on usage data commonly available.
Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most power and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.
Practice Harm Reduction. Proceed with Caution.
Also known as:
- (+)-lysergic acid d
methyl-9,10-didehyd[German][ACD/IUPAC Name] roergolin-8-carboxa mid
methyl-9,10-didehyd[ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
méthyl-9,10-didéhyd[French][ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
- Blotter Acid
- Blue Acid
- Blue Cheer
- Blue Mist
- Blue Star
- D-lysergic acid die
ide, 9,10-didehydro[ACD/Index Name] -N,N-diethyl-6-meth yl-, (8β)-
- Lysergamide, N,N-di
- Lysergic acid dieth
- Lysergsaure Diethyl
- MFCD00135795[MDL number]
-6-methyl-6,11-diaz atetracyclo[22.214.171.124 2,7 .012,16 ]hexadeca-1(16),2,9 ,12,14-pentaene-4-c arboxamide
-6-methyl-6,11-diaz atetracyclo[126.96.36.199 2,7.012,16]hexadeca -1(16),2,9,12,14-pe ntaene-4-carboxamide
l-7-methyl-6,6a,8,9 -tetrahydro-4H-indo lo[4,3-fg]quinoline -9-carboxamide
-N,N-diethyl-6-meth ylergoline-8-carbox amide
methyl-9,10-didehyd[ACD/IUPAC Name] roergoline-8-carbox amide
- 4-25-00-00939 (Beil
stein Handbook Refe[Beilstein] rence)
diethyl-6-methyl-er goline-8-β-carboxam ide
- Bart Simpson
- Big F
- Brown Dots
- California Sunshine
- Cherry To
- Chocolate Chips
- Contact Lens
- Dextrolysergic acid
- Diethylamid kyselin
- d-Lysergic acid det
- D-Lysergic acid N,N
mide, 9,10-didehydr o-N,N-diethyl-6-met hyl-
amide, 9,10-didehyd ro-N,N-diethyl-6-me thyl-
- Gelatin Chips
- Heavenly Blue
- Instant Zen
- Lysergate diethylam
- Lysergaure diethyla
- lysergic acid amide
- Mean Green
- Mellow Yellow
l-9,10-didehydroerg[ACD/IUPAC Name] oline-8-carboxamide
- Orange Mushroom
- Orange Sunshine
- Orange Wedges
-diethyl-6-methyler goline-8b-carboxami de
- Paper Acid
- Pearly gates
- Purple Haze
- Purple Microdot
- Royal Blue
- Strawberry Fields
- Sugar Lum
- The Hawk
- Wedding bells
- Wedding Bells Acid
- White Light
- Window Pane
LSD is a popular psychedelic with a relatively long history of use and research, and as such is known to be relatively safe despite its extremely high potency. It is the archetypical psychedelic to which all others are compared, and remains in popular usage.
It is considered to be the the best known, most researched, and culturally influential psychedelic substance. It is thought to produce its psychedelic effects by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain, although the precise mechanism is not fully understood. The psychoactive effects of LSD were first discovered in 1943 by Albert Hofmann, a Swiss chemist working for Sandoz Laboratories.
In the 1950s it was distributed by Sandoz under the name Delysid for use as an experimental drug in psychotherapy and scientific research. During this period, LSD generated widespread interest from clinicians, researchers, and intellectuals and was notoriously the subject of a secret investigation by the U. S.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for potential applications in “mind control”. Recreational LSD use became a central part of the 1960s youth counterculture movement which eventually led to its prohibition in 1971. Following a 40 year hiatus, research into the therapeutic applications of LSD has experienced a revival.
It is currently being investigated for the treatment of a number of ailments including alcoholism, addiction, cluster headache, and anxiety associated with terminal illness. LSD remains in widespread illicit use for recreational and spiritual purposes. The lifetime prevalence of LSD use among adults is in the range of 6-8%.
Subjective effects include open and closed-eye visuals, time distortion, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, euphoria, and ego loss. LSD is commonly reported to be able to evoke mystical-type experiences that can facilitate self-reflection and personal growth. It is considered by some to be the first modern entheogen, a category which is otherwise limited to traditional plant preparations or extracts.
Unlike other highly prohibited substances, LSD has not been proven to be physiologically toxic or addictive. However, adverse psychological reactions such as severe anxiety, paranoia, delusions, and psychosis are always possible, particularly for those predisposed to psychiatric disorders. As a result, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
However, its psychoactive properties were not discovered until five years later when Hofmann claimed to have accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical before proceeding to ride his bike home. The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943. Hofmann ingested 250 micrograms (µg) of LSD, believing it would be a threshold dose based on the doses of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated and was impressed by its profound mind-altering effects. In 1947, Sandoz introduced LSD to the medical community under the name Delysid as an experimental tool to induce temporary psychotic-like states in normals (“model-psychosis”) and later to enhance psychotherapeutic treatments (“psycholytic” or “psychedelic” therapy). LSD had a major impact in the areas of scientific research and psychiatry. Within 15 years of its release, research on LSD and other hallucinogens generated over 1,000 scientific papers and was prescribed to over 40,000 patients. In the 1950s, the US Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named MK-ULTRA that would conduct clandestine research investigating LSD for applications in mind control and chemical warfare. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public without their knowledge or consent, which resulted in at least one death. In 1963, the Sandoz patents for LSD expired. Several prominent intellectuals, including Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Al Hubbard began to advocate for the consumption of LSD. LSD became a central part of the youth-driven counterculture of the 1960s. Along with other hallucinogens, LSD was advocated by new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Leary, Huxley, Alan Watts and Arthur Koestler who, according to L. R. Veysey, profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States.
The last FDA approved study of LSD in patients ended in 1980, while a study in healthy volunteers was made in the late 1980s. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993.
LSD's chemical structure consists of a bicyclic hexahydroindole ring fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (lysergic acid).
At carbon 8 of the quinoline an N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.
LSD is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group. LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8.
LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R).
The three other stereoisomers of LSD do not have psychoactive properties. LSD occurs as a colorless, odorless crystal in its pure form.
LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine (especially in solution).
Its potency may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at cold temperatures around 0°C or below, but will slowly degrade at normal room temperature (25°C).
|Common Name||Lysergic acid diethylamide|
|Systematic name||Lysergic acid diethylamide|
|SMILES||CCN(CC)C(=O)[[email protected]]1CN([[email protected]@H]2Cc3c[nH]c4c3c(ccc4)C2=C1)C|
|Avg. Mass||323.432 Da|
|Monoisotopic Mass||323.199768 Da|
|LSD Duration Data|
Interactions and Synergies
- Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and psychedelics also cause occasional seizures.
|Oral||Light: 50-100ug Common: 100-150ug Strong: 175-225ug Heavy 225ug+|
Note: These doses are for pure LSD, note that tabs are often rather a lot weaker than they are advertised.
|Effects||visual distortions, a sense of childlike wonder, brightening of colors,racing thoughts, hue shifts, euphoria, anxiety, confusion|
|Avoid||marijuana (Can potentiate effects)|
|Marguis Test Result||Olive black|
LSD is a partial agonist for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptors. LSD binds to most serotonin receptor subtypes except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4. 5-HT5B receptors, which have not been found in humans, also have a high affinity for LSD. The psychedelic effects of LSD are thought to be mediated by agonist action 5-HT2A receptors. LSD also shows efficacy at all dopamine and all norepinephrine receptors. Most serotonergic psychedelics are not significantly dopaminergic, so LSD is unique in this respect. LSD’s agonism of D2 receptors has been shown to contribute to its psychoactive effects.
The subjective effects of LSD can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage in a nonlinear manner.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on physical energy levels, LSD is usually regarded as being very energetic and stimulating without being forced. For example, when taken in any environment it will usually encourage physical activities such as running, walking, climbing or dancing. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocybin are generally sedating and sedentary.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of LSD can be described as prominent in comparison to its accompanying visual and cognitive effects. It behaves as a euphoric, fast-moving, sharp and location specific or generalized tingling sensation. For some, it manifests spontaneously at different, unpredictable points throughout the trip, but for most, it maintains a steady presence that rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Physical euphoria - LSD is capable of producing a unique form of physical euphoria in certain situations. However, this effect does not occur as prominently or reliably as with substances like entactogens or opioids, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort without any apparent reason.
- Perception of bodily lightness - The stimulation and energy LSD produces can cause the user to feel as if they are moving weightlessly.
- Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensations are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most LSD trips. If level 8A geometry is reached an intense sensation of seeming to "become aware of and feel every single nerve ending across your entire body all at once" has been described.
- Changes in felt bodily form - This effect is often accompanied by a sense of warmth or unity and usually occurs during and up to the peak of the experience or directly afterward. Users can feel as if they are physically part of or conjoined with other objects. This is usually reported as feeling comfortable in its sensations and even peaceful, compared to other substances that induce this effect like salvia.
- Temperature regulation suppression - LSD appears to cause the body to lose some of its ability to regulate its temperature. While usually harmless, users should be careful when taking LSD in conditions of extreme hot or cold.
- Increased bodily temperature - Potentially dangerous states of overheating have been reported to occur in certain conditions, particularly with higher doses due to the fact that LSD raises the amount of serotonin in the body. Users are advised to monitor their core temperature and be cautious if taking LSD in hot or overcrowded outdoor environments.
- Nausea - Mild nausea is occasionally reported on moderate to high doses and either passes after the user vomits or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Bodily control enhancement
- Stamina enhancement - LSD is reported to enhance the user's stamina for physical activities such as hiking, running, or dancing. Some people have also reported using small doses to improve athletic performance. However, this effect is generally mild compared to the stamina enhancement of stimulants.
- Appetite suppression - LSD can suppress appetite in a manner similar to (although not as strong as) stimulants, especially for fatty foods. It is advised to eat a medium sized meal two to three hours before a trip to ensure one has enough energy to last through the whole trip. During the trip, it is recommended to eat snacks like fruits or nuts or smoothies instead of full meals to avoid nausea and gastric discomfort.
- Difficulty urinating
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Excessive yawning - LSD can induce fits of excessive yawning, especially during the come up phase.
- Pupil dilation
- Increased salivation
- Seizure - Seizures are very rare but may occur in those who are predisposed to them, particularly while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated, or generally fatigued.
- Analysis enhancement - LSD is commonly reported to give the user the ability to analyze situations in a novel and beneficial way.
- Anxiety & Paranoia - Anxiety and paranoia are not typically observed at low to common doses and are less likely to occur when the basic rules of set and setting are taken into account. It should be noted that these effects are vastly more likely to occur when used with cannabis.
- Conceptual thinking
- Cognitive euphoria - LSD is capable of producing cognitive euphoria, but it does so in a less consistent and pronounced manner than substances like MDMA, cocaine, and opioids. Unlike the aforementioned substances, the mental euphoria experienced on LSD is usually due to an enhancement of the user’s current psychological and emotional state.
- Personal bias suppression
- Creativity enhancement - LSD is well-known for its ability to enhance creativity and out-of-the-box thinking. As a result, it has an extensive history of being used by artists, musicians, scientists, and other intellectuals starting from the 1950s.
- Novelty enhancement
- Focus enhancement - Focus enhancement occurs exclusively on low or threshold dosages and feels less forced or sharp than it does with stimulants.
- Immersion enhancement - LSD powerfully enhances the user's sense of immersion in the present moment.
- Personal meaning enhancement
- Emotion enhancement - LSD strongly enhances the user's ability to experience emotion. This is thought to contribute to its therapeutic effect. Consequently, it is advised to not take LSD when in a low or unstable mood and to follow the principles of set and setting.
- Empathy, affection and sociability enhancement
- Déjà vu
- Increased libido
- Increased music appreciation
- Increased sense of humor - An increased sense of humor is very common during LSD experiences, particularly during the come up and peak phases. Users report suddenly finding mundane situations and actions inexplicably hilarious, which may be due to its novelty enhancement. The reason for this is unknown, but it may be related to LSD's effects on the serotonin and dopamine systems.
- Memory suppression
- Motivation enhancement - LSD produces stimulant-like motivation enhancement at low and microdoses, although in a much less prominent or reliable manner.
- Multiple thought streams
- Ego replacement - Ego replacement is very rare and occurs in an unpredictable manner. This effect usually coincides with delusions and may indicate the beginnings of psychosis. It is more likely to occur with high doses.
- Personality regression - True personality regression on LSD is very rare. More commonly, it takes the milder form of the user having strong feelings of early childhood, including repressed memories.
- Simultaneous emotions
- Suggestibility enhancement - The user's suggestibility to external influences can become strongly enhanced on LSD. While this can be used to beneficial effect in the context of psychotherapy, it may also be abused by criminals and cult-leaders to take advantage of unsuspecting individuals. Users are advised to exercise caution and be selective about who they take LSD with.
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Thought loops
- Time distortion - LSD can profoundly affect one's perception of time. This typically takes the form of time dilation, or the experience of time slowing down and passing much slower than it does while sober.
- Wakefulness - LSD makes it difficult or impossible to go to sleep for up to 10 hours (or more) after ingestion.
- Addiction suppression
- Visual acuity enhancement
- Colour enhancement - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect is often reported to be brighter and more "radiant" in its character.
- Pattern recognition enhancement
- Frame rate enhancement
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed yet cartoon-like in its appearance. The distortions are slow and smooth in motion and fleeting in their appearance.
- Colour shifting
- After images
- Depth perception distortions
- Environmental patterning
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry encountered on LSD can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 2C-B or 2C-I than psilocin, LSA or DMT. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, algorithmic in form, unstructured in organization, brightly lit, colourful in scheme, synthetic in feel, multicoloured in scheme, flat in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, angular in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. At higher dosages, it almost consistently results in states of Level 8A visual geometry over Level 8B.
LSD is capable of producing a full range of low and high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is significantly less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics, specifically tryptamines like DMT or psilocybin mushrooms. These effects include:
- Machinescapes - A rare effect that typically only occurs at very strong to heavy doses, and not as consistently as with certain psychedelics such as DMT, psilocybin mushrooms, and 2C-P, and atypical psychedelics like salvia.
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - Although some users reports that LSD capable of producing hallucinatory states with the intensity and vividness of psilocybin mushrooms or DMT, they are much rarer and inconsistent. While traditional psychedelics such as LSA, ayahuasca and mescaline will induce internal hallucinations near consistently at level 5 geometry and above, some users claim that LSD tends to go straight into Level 8A visual geometry. This lack of consistently induced hallucinatory breakthroughs means that for most, LSD is relatively limited in depth, at doses that do not come with excessive side effects.
- External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots)
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
Internationally, the UN 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances requires its parties to prohibit LSD. Hence, it is illegal in all parties to the convention, which includes the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and most of Europe. Medical and scientific research with LSD in humans is permitted under the 1971 UN Convention, although has been reported to be difficult to actually carry out in practice.
- Dolder, P. C., Schmid, Y., Haschke, M., Rentsch, K. M., & Liechti, M. E. (2016). Pharmacokinetics and concentration-effect relationship of oral LSD in humans. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 19(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyv072
- Nichols, David E. (2016). Barker, Eric L., ed. "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. :10.1124/pr.115.011478. 1521-0081. 0031-6997.
- Passie, T.; Halpern, J. H.; Stichtenoth, D. O.; Emrich, H. M.; Hintzen, A. "The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review" (PDF). CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 14: 295–314. :10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. 1755-5949. 1755-5930. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Schmid, Y.; Enzler, F.; Gasser, P.; Grouzmann, E.; Preller, K. H.; Vollenweider, F. X.; Brenneisen, R.; Müller, F.; Borgwardt, S.; Liechti, M. E. (2015). "Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects". Biological Psychiatry. 78 (8): 544–553. :10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.11.015. 1873-2402. 0006-3223.
- "Joint Hearing before the Select Committee On Intelligence and the Subcommitte On Health And Scientific Research of the Committee On Human Resources: Ninety-fifth congress: First Session" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. August 3, 1977. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- David Nichols (December 22, 2005). "LSD: cultural revolution and medical advances". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- "Convention On Psychotropic Substances, 1971" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Lyvers, Michael; Meester, Molly (2012). "Illicit Use of LSD or Psilocybin, but not MDMA or Nonpsychedelic Drugs, is Associated with Mystical Experiences in a Dose-Dependent Manner". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 44 (5): 410–417. :10.1080/02791072.2012.736842. 2159-9777. 0279-1072.
- Grof, Stanislav (1993). Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. London: Souvenir Press. pp. 13–14. 0-285-64882-9. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Lüscher, Christian; Ungless, Mark A. (2006). "The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs". PLOS Medicine. 3 (11). :10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437. 1549-1676. 1549-1277. PMID 17105338.
- Strassmann, Rick (1984). "Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 172 (10): 577–595. :10.1097/00005053-198410000-00001. 0022-3018. OCLC 1754691. PMID 6384428.
- Hofmann, Albert (1980). LSD - My Problem Child. Translated by Ott, Jonathan. New York: McGraw-Hill. 978-0-07029-325-0. OCLC 6251390.
- Nichols, David (May 24, 2003). "Hypothesis on Albert Hofmann's Famous 1943 "Bicycle Day"". at Mindstates IV: Berkeley, CA: Transcription & Editing by Erowid. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Zentner, Joseph L. (1976). "The Recreational Use of LSD-25 and Drug Prohibition". Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. 8 (4): 299–305. :10.1080/02791072.1976.10471853. 2159-9777. 0279-1072.
- Veysey, Laurence R. (1978). The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Communities in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 437. 0-226-85458-2.
- "Public Law 90-639" (PDF). Erowid. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Gasser, Peter (1995). "Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland". Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. MAPS. 5 (3): 3–7. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). "#26. LSD-25". TiHKAL: The Continuation. United States: Transform Press. 0-9630096-9-9. OCLC 38503252.
- Carhart-Harris, R. L.; Muthukumaraswamy, S.; Roseman, L.; Kaelen, M.; Droog, W.; Murphy, K.; Tagliazucchi, E.; Schenberg, E. E.; Nest, T.; Orban, C.; Leech, R.; Williams, L. T.; Williams, T. M.; Bolstridge, M.; Sessa, B.; McGonigle, J.; Sereno, M. I.; Nichols, D.; Hellyer, P. J.; Hobden, P.; Evans, J.; Singh, K. D.; Wise, R. G.; Curran, H. V.; Feilding, A.; Nutt, D. J. (2016). "Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (17): 4853–4858. :10.1073/pnas.1518377113. 1091-6490. 0027-8424. OCLC 43473694.
- Aghajanian, G. K.; Bing, O. H. (1964). "Persistence Of Lysergic Acid Siethylamide In The Plasma Of Human Subjects". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 5 (5): 611–614. :10.1002/cpt196455611. 1532-6535. PMID 14209776.
- Nelson, D. L. (2004). "5-HT5 receptors". Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders. 3 (1): 53–58. :10.2174/1568007043482606. 1568-007X. PMID 14965244.
- Moreno, J. L.; Holloway, T.; Albizu, L.; Sealfon, S. C.; González-Maeso, J. (2011). "Metabotropic glutamate mGlu2 receptor is necessary for the pharmacological and behavioral effects induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A receptor agonists". Neuroscience Letters. 493 (3): 76–79. :10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.046. 0304-3940. OCLC 1874501. PMID 21276828.
- Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Thisted, Ronald A.; Nichols, David E. (2005). "Distinct temporal phases in the behavioral pharmacology of LSD: dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat and implications for psychosis". Psychopharmacology. 180 (3): 427–435. :10.1007/s00213-005-2183-9. 1432-2072. 0033-3158. PMID 15723230.
- Hanna, Jon; Manning, Tania (2012). "The End of a Chemistry Era...: Dave Nichols Closes Shop". Erowid Extracts. Erowid. 23: 2–7. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Friedman, Steven A.; Hirsch, Stuart E. (1971). "Extreme Hyperthermia After LSD Ingestion". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 217 (11): 1549–1550. :10.1001/jama.1971.03190110067020. 1538-3598. 0098-7484. OCLC 1124917.
- Krebs, T. S.; Johansen, P. Ø. (2012). "Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 994–1002. :10.1177/0269881112439253. 1461-7285. 0269-8811. OCLC 19962867. PMID 22406913.
- Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). "Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939". Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. :10.1002/nrc.20023. 1520-6769.
- Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). "Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. :10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. 1879-0712. 0014-2999. OCLC 01568459.
- Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). "Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons". NeuroToxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. :10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. 0161-813X. PMID 17572501.
- Greiner, Theodore; Burch, Neil R.; Edelberg, Robert (1958). "Psychopathology and Psychophysiology of Minimal LSD-25 Dosage: A Preliminary Dosage-Response Spectrum". A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. 79 (2): 208–210. :10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340020088016. 0096-6886. OCLC 994501808. PMID 13497365.
- Jim Newton (July 27, 1992). "Long LSD Prison Terms--It's All in the Packaging : Drugs: Law can mean decades in prison for minuscule amounts. DEA official says no change is needed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Erowid. "25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths". Erowid. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Hastings, Deborah (May 6, 2013). "New drug N-bomb hits the street, terrifying parents, troubling cops". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Feehan, Conor (January 21, 2016). "Powerful N-Bomb drug - responsible for spate of deaths internationally - responsible for hospitalisation of six in Cork". Irish Independent. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Iversen, Les (May 29, 2013). "Temporary Class Drug Order Report on 5-6APB and NBOMe compounds" (PDF). Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Gov.Uk. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
- Maclean, J. R.; Macdonald, D. C.; Odgen, F.; Wilby, E. (1967). "LSD-25 and Mescaline as Therapeutic Adjuvants: Experience from a Seven Year Study". In Abramson, H. A. The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism (PDF). New York: Bobbs-Merrill. pp. 74–80. OCLC 302168.
- Hoffer, A. (1967). "A Program for the Treatment of Alcoholism: LSD, Malvaria and Nicotinic Acid". In Abramson, H. A. The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism (PDF). New York: Bobbs-Merrill. pp. 353–402. OCLC 302168.
- Mangini, Mariavittoria (1998). "Treatment of Alcoholism Using Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Program of Research". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 30 (4): 381–418. :10.1080/02791072.1998.10399714. 2159-9777. 0279-1072.
- Kast, Eric (1967). "Attenuation of anticipation: A therapeutic use of lysergic acid diethylamide". Psychiatric Quarterly. 41 (4): 646–657. :10.1007/BF01575629. 1573-6709. 0033-2720. OCLC 01715671.
- Sewell, R. A.; Halpern, J. H.; Pope, H. G. (2006). "Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD". Neurology. 66 (12): 1920–1922. :10.1212/01.wnl.0000219761.05466.43. 1526-632X. 0028-3878. OCLC 960771045.
- "LSD and Psilocybin Research: Research into psilocybin and LSD as potential treatments for people with cluster headaches". Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. Archived from the original on January 29, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- dvp (July 28, 2009). "Psychiater Gasser bricht sein Schweigen" (in German). Basler Zeitung. Archived from the original on September 2, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- David Jay Brown (May 26, 2011). "Landmark Clinical LSD Study Nears Completion". Patch. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- Ly, Calvin; Greb, Alexandra C.; Cameron, Lindsay P.; Wong, Jonathan M.; Barragan, Eden V.; Wilson, Paige C.; Burbach, Kyle F.; Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Sina; Sood, Alexander; Paddy, Michael R.; Duim, Whitney C.; Dennis, Megan Y.; McAllister, A. Kimberley; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M.; Gray, John A.; Olson, David E. (2018). "Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity". Cell Reports. 23 (11): 3170–3182. :10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022. 2211-1247.
- Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Health Policy. 369 (9566): 1047–1053. :10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. 1872-6054. 0168-8510. OCLC 10960514. PMID 17382831.
- Nichols, David E. (2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. :10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. 1879-016X. 0163-7258. OCLC 04981366.
- "Does LSD have any medical uses?". LSD. Drug Science. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "LSD: Interactions". Erowid. November 18, 2003. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "wanderlei" (October 3, 2010). "A Nice Little Trip to the Hospital: Lithium & LSD". Erowid Experience Vaults. Erowid. ExpID: 83935. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "MissDja1a" (December 16, 2008). "Having a Seizure and Passing Out: Lithium & LSD". Erowid Experience Vaults. Erowid. ExpID: 75153. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "throwaway_naut" (2014). "Please Read: a cautionary tale concerning LSD". r/Psychonaut. Reddit. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- Bonson, Katherine R.; Murphy, Dennis L. (1995). "Alterations in responses to LSD in humans associated with chronic administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors or lithium". Behavioural Brain Research. 73 (1-2): 229–233. :10.1016/0166-4328(96)00102-7. 1872-7549. 0166-4328. OCLC 06183451. PMID 8788508.
- "Tripsit Factsheets - LSD". Tripsit. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. :10.1007/BF03161089. 1937-6995. 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183. PMC . PMID 19415589.
- Fisher, D. D.; Ungerleider, J. T. (1967). "Grand mal seizures following ingestion of LSD". California Medicine. 106 (3): 210–211. 0008-1264. PMC . PMID 4962683.
- "Schedule III". Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19). Government of Canada. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Samlet liste over euforiserende stoffer opført på bilag 1 til bekendtgørelsen om euforiserende stoffer nr. 557 af 31. maj 2011 og stoffer reguleret herefter via ændringsbekendtgørelser" (in Danish). Lægemiddelstyrelsen [Danish Medicines Agency]. June 13, 2018. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Vierte Verordnung über die den Betäubungsmitteln gleichgestellten Stoffe" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1967 Teil I Nr. 10 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. p. 197. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Glenn Greenwald (April 2, 2009). "Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies". White Paper Series. Cato Institute. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "Part I: Class A Drugs". "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971". UK Government. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "Controlled Substances: by CSA Schedule" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. August 21, 2019. p. 5. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- American Custom Chemicals Corp API0007621
- American Custom Chemicals Corp API0015149
- American Custom Chemicals Corp BAR0000900
- American Custom Chemicals Corp RDL0008840
- American Custom Chemicals Corp RDL0014483
- Angene AGN-PC-0OBC5D
- Aurora Fine Chemicals K04.154.465
- BIND (no longer updated) 109
- BindingDB 21342
- BindingDB 50241702
- BioCyc CPD-14458
- ChEBI CHEBI:6605
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChemAdvisor OHS13028
- ChEMBL CHEMBL263881
- ChemIDplus 000050373
- ChemIDplus 015232630
- ChemIDplus 024656415
- ChemIDplus 032426576
- Collaborative Drug Discovery 47989
- CommonChemistry.org 50-37-3
- CSDeposition Service DB04829
- DiscoveryGate 208570
- DiscoveryGate 5761
- DrugBank DB04829
- DSigDB d4boss_538
- DSigDB d4ctd_6228
- DSigDB d4ttd_9094
- eMolecules 591396
- EPA DSSTox DTXCID003231
- Erowid LSD
- FDA UNII - NLM 8NA5SWF92O
- FDA UNII - NLM UNII: 8NA5SWF92O
- Finetech Industry FT-0670891
- Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 17
- IUPHAR-DB 5310
- Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 14832
- KEGG C07542
- LabNetwork LN01287284
- Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary 5761
- LeadScope LS-64351
- LGC Standards LGCAMP1346.00-11
- LGC Standards LGCAMP1346.00-13
- LGC Standards LGCFOR1346.00
- LGC Standards MM1346.00
- MassBank JP002800
- MassBank WA001253
- MassBank WA001254
- MassBank WA001255
- MassBank WA001256
- MassBank WA001257
- MMDB 147043
- OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details
- OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details
- PDB 7LD
- PubChem 5761
- PubMed 11317225
- PubMed 12213075
- PubMed 4165370
- PubMed 4176897
- PubMed 4985239
- Royal Society of Chemistry B615669J
- Royal Society of Chemistry B906391A
- Sabio-RK 9647
- Sigma-Aldrich CERILLIAN-L-001
- Sigma-Aldrich CERILLIAN-L-005
- Sigma-Aldrich L-001
- Sigma-Aldrich L-005
- Sigma-Aldrich L7007
- Sigma-Aldrich SIGMA-L7007
- Springer Nature A behavioral and pharmacological analysis of some discriminable properties of d-LSD in rats
- Springer Nature A comparison of LSD-25 with (???)-??9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and attempted cross tolerance between LSD and THC
- Springer Nature A new device for measuring spontaneous motor activity u2014 Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in rats
- Springer Nature Activity of a non-hallucinogenic ergoline derivative, lisuride, in an animal behavior model for hallucinogens
- Springer Nature Agonist activity of LSD and lisuride at cloned 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors
- Springer Nature Alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences after acute LSD in humans
- Springer Nature Alternative Method for Forensic Determination of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Related Compounds in Body Fluids by Liquidu2013Liquid Extraction and HPLC with Fluorescence Detection
- Springer Nature An analysis of some perceptual effects of morphine, chlorpromazine, and LSD
- Springer Nature Antagonism of a behavioral effect of LSD and lisuride in the cat
- Springer Nature Behavioral and neurochemical pharmacology of six psychoactive substituted phenethylamines: mouse locomotion, rat drug discrimination and in vitro receptor and transporter binding and function
- Springer Nature Behaviorally induced sensitivity to the discriminable properties of LSD
- Springer Nature Comparison of the action of lysergic acid diethylamide and apomorphine on the copulatory response in the female rat
- Springer Nature Comparison of the discriminative stimulus effects of dimethyltryptamine with different classes of psychoactive compounds in rats
- Springer Nature Complex stimulus properties of LSD: a drug discrimination study with ??2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists
- Springer Nature Cross-tolerance studies of serotonin receptors involved in behavioral effects of LSD in rats
- Springer Nature Determination of psilocin, bufotenine, LSD and its metabolites in serum, plasma and urine by SPE-LC-MS/MS
- Springer Nature Development and validation of a rapid turboflow LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in serum and urine samples of emergency toxicological cases
- Springer Nature Discriminative stimulus properties of pizotifen maleate (BC105): a putative serotonin antagonist
- Springer Nature Dissociation of multiple effects of acute LSD on exploratory behavior in rats by ritanserin and propranolol
- Springer Nature Dopamine D4 receptor involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects in rats of LSD, but not the phenethylamine hallucinogen DOI
- Springer Nature Drug effects on the repeated generalization of a visual discrimination acquired under one trial per day conditions
- Springer Nature Drug-induced stimulus control and the concept of breaking point: LSD and quipazine
- Springer Nature Drugs and visual perception: Effects of LSD, morphine and chlorpromazine on accuracy, bias and speed
- Springer Nature Early preclinical studies of discriminable sedative and hallucinogenic drug effects
- Springer Nature Effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine and related compounds on the isolated heart ofPila globosa (Gastropoda: Mollusca)
- Springer Nature Effect of lisuride and LSD on monoamine synthesis after axotomy or reserpine treatment in rat brain
- Springer Nature Effect of LSD on mitotic and meiotic plant chromosomes
- Springer Nature Effect of LSD-25 on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of mice and monkeys
- Springer Nature Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on monoamine content in some nuclei of the mesencephalon and hypothalamus
- Springer Nature Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide on permeability of the tissue-blood barriers in rats
- Springer Nature Effects of Cannabis sativa and lysergic acid diethylamide on a visual discrimination task in pigeons
- Springer Nature Effects of dopaminergic and cholinergic drugs, naloxone and l-prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide on LSD-induced catalepsy
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD and BOL on the catecholamine synthesis and turnover in various brain regions
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD on open field performance in rats
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD on the spontaneous and evoked activity of retinal and geniculate ganglion cells
- Springer Nature Effects of LSD-25 on avoidance behavior and locomotor activity in mice
- Springer Nature Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide on the spontaneous activity and visual receptive fields of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat
- Springer Nature Effects of single and multiple dose LSD on endogenous levels of brain tyrosine and catecholamines
- Springer Nature Effects on in vitro brain protein synthesis of a translational inhibitor isolated from rabbit brain following intravenous administration of LSD
- Springer Nature Evidence of catecholamine mediation in the u2018Aberrantu2019 behaviour induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the rat
- Springer Nature Generalization of morphine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) stimulus properties to narcotic analgesics
- Springer Nature Hallucinogen-induced rotational behavior in rats
- Springer Nature Hallucinogenic drug interactions with neurotransmitter receptor binding sites in human cortex
- Springer Nature Hallucinogens as discriminative stimuli in animals: LSD, phenethylamines, and tryptamines
- Springer Nature Impairment by lysergic acid diethylamide of accuracy in performance of a delayed alternation test in monkeys
- Springer Nature Interaction between narcotic antagonist (naloxone) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the rat
- Springer Nature Interactions of metergoline with diazepam, quipazine, and hallucinogenic drugs on a conflict behavior in the rat
- Springer Nature Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the LSD- and L-5-HTP-induced suppression of lordotic behavior in the female rat
- Springer Nature LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor
- Springer Nature Lisuride and LSD: Dopaminergic and serotonergic interactions in the u201cserotonin syndromeu201d
- Springer Nature Long-lasting subjective effects of LSD in normal subjects
- Springer Nature LSD and structural analogs: pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature LSD as an agonist at mesolimbic dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature LSD but not lisuride disrupts prepulse inhibition in rats by activating the 5-HT2A receptor
- Springer Nature LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers
- Springer Nature LSD enhances the emotional response to music
- Springer Nature LSD-induced alterations of investigatory responding in rats
- Springer Nature LSD-induced alterations of locomotor patterns and exploration in rats
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as a discriminative cue: Drugs with similar stimulus properties
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide affects blood flow to specific areas of the conscious rat brain
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide antagonizes shaking induced in rats by five chemically different compounds
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide: Evidence for stimulation of pituitary dopamine receptors
- Springer Nature Lysergic acid diethylamide: Morphological study of its effect on synapses
- Springer Nature Mefloquine and psychotomimetics share neurotransmitter receptor and transporter interactions in vitro
- Springer Nature Mescaline and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as discriminative stimuli
- Springer Nature Neutralization of LSD by active immunization
- Springer Nature Observations on direct and cross tolerance with LSD and d-amphetamine in man
- Springer Nature Oxidation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by peroxidases: a new metabolic pathway
- Springer Nature Persistent effects of chronic clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses to LSD in mice
- Springer Nature Plasma creatine phosphokinase levels in rats following lysergic acid diethylamide
- Springer Nature Possible involvement of the central dopaminergic system in the antireserpine effect of LSD
- Springer Nature Quipazine-induced stimulus control in the rat
- Springer Nature Relationships of psychotomimetic to anti-serotonin potencies of congeners of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25)
- Springer Nature Responses of the flexor reflex to LSD, tryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, methoxamine, and d-amphetamine in acute and chronic spinal rats
- Springer Nature Reversibility of changes in the rat brain due to prolonged administration of lysergide (LSD)
- Springer Nature Serotonergic/glutamatergic interactions: the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor ligands in rats trained with LSD and PCP as discriminative stimuli
- Springer Nature Serotonin2 receptor agonists and serotonergic anorectic drugs affect ratsu2019 performance differently in a five-choice serial reaction time task
- Springer Nature The 5-HT1A receptor and the stimulus effects of LSD in the rat
- Springer Nature The effect of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human subjects tolerant to lysergic acid diethylamide
- Springer Nature The effects of LSD in the guinea-pig ileum
- Springer Nature The lack of effect of LSD 25 on amygdaloid and cortical attention responses
- Springer Nature The role of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs I: Antagonist correlation analysis
- Springer Nature The time-dependent stimulus effects of R(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methamphetamine (DOM): implications for drug-induced stimulus control as a method for the study of hallucinogenic agents
- Springer Nature u201eWir begleiten Patienten auf der Reise nach innenu201c
- The Merck Index Online cs000000011606
- Thieme Chemistry SD-010-00001
- Thomson Pharma 00369002
- Thomson Pharma 00509391
- Thomson Pharma 01384229
- Toxin, Toxin-Target Database T3D3582
- Wikidata Q23118
- Wikipedia LSD
- Wikipedia Lysergic_acid_diethylamide
- xPharm 8843
Information made possible with:
- PsychonautWiki is a community-driven online encyclopedia that aims to document the field of psychonautics in a comprehensive, scientifically-grounded manner.
- Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
- PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
- Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
Additional APIs were used to construct this information. Thanks for ChemSpider, NCBI, PubChem etc.
Data is constantly updated so please check back later to see if there is any more available information on this substance.