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Description

AL-LAD Also known as:

  • (8β)-6-Allyl-N,N-diethyl-9,10-didehydroergolin-8-carboxamid[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (8β)-6-Allyl-N,N-diethyl-9,10-didehydroergoline-8-carboxamide[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (8β)-6-Allyl-N,N-diéthyl-9,10-didéhydroergoline-8-carboxamide[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (8β)-N,N-diethyl-6-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-9,10-didehydroergoline-8-carboxamide
  • Ergoline-8-carboxamide, 9,10-didehydro-N,N-diethyl-6-(2-propen-1-yl)-, (8β)-[ACD/Index Name]
  • N-ALLYLNORLYSERGIC ACID N,N-DIETHYLAMIDE
  • (6aR,9R)-7-allyl-N,N-diethyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-indol[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxyamine[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-prop-2-enyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-indolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
  • 7-Allyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydro-indolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxylic acid diethylamide
  • 8??-6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide
  • AL-LAD

AL-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug, lysergamide and an analogue of LSD. It is reported as having some subtle experiential differences to LSD (such as increased visuals), and also appears to be slightly shorter lasting. AL-LAD doses are similar to those of LSD, depending on purity. Its availability on the Internet since 2013 has lead to strong popularity among the drug community.

Summary

AL-LAD is chemically similar to LSD and has a similar mechanism of action, working primarily by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain. AL-LAD was first investigated in 1984 by Andrew J. Hoffman and David Nichols as part of a series of LSD analogs, which also included ETH-LAD and PRO-LAD.

Its activity in humans was later documented by Alexander Shulgin in his book TiHKAL (“Tryptamines I Have Known and Loved”), in which it is described as “considerably less dramatic”. In 2013, AL-LAD appeared for sale on the research chemical market, where it has been commonly marketed alongside lysergamides such as 1P-LSD, ALD-52 and ETH-LAD as a legal, grey-market alternative to LSD. User reports describe the effects of AL-LAD as similar to those of LSD with some subtle differences.

It is thought to either be equally or moderately less potent than LSD itself, with an active dose reported at between 75 and 150 micrograms. It is often described as being more visually-oriented but with a less introspective headspace. It also has a moderately shorter duration and is generally considered to be a less anxiety-provoking and challenging version of LSD.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of AL-LAD. While it is often characterized by users as being generally more recreational and non-threatening compared to LSD, it is highly advised to approach this highly potent hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of precaution and harm reduction practices if using it.

Chemistry

AL-LAD

AL-LAD

AL-LAD is a structural analog of lysergic acid, with an N,N-diethylamide functional group bound to RN of the chemical structure.

AL-LAD’s chemical structure contains a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (nor-lysergic acid).

Unlike LSD, AL-LAD does not contain a methyl group substituted at R6 of its nor-lysergic acid skeleton, this is represented by the nor- prefix.

Instead, AL-LAD is substituted at R6 with an allyl group comprised of a methylene bridge bound to a vinyl substituent.

At carbon 8 of the quinoline a N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound. AL-LAD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8.

AL-LAD, also called (+)-D-AL-LAD, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R).

The three other stereoisomers of AL-LAD do not have psychoactive properties.

Common NameN-ALLYLNORLYSERGIC ACID N,N-DIETHYLAMIDE
Systematic nameN-ALLYLNORLYSERGIC ACID N,N-DIETHYLAMIDE
FormulaC_{22}H_{27}N_{3}O
SMILESCCN(CC)C(=O)[[email protected]]1CN([[email protected]@H]2Cc3c[nH]c4c3c(ccc4)C2=C1)CC=C
Std. InChiInChI=1S/C22H27N3O/c1-4-10-25-14-16(22(26)24(5-2)6-3)11-18-17-8-7-9-19-21(17)15(13-23-19)12-20(18)25/h4,7-9,11,13,16,20,23H,1,5-6,10,12,14H2,2-3H3/t16-,20-/m1/s1
Std. InChiKeyJCQLEPDZFXGHHQ-OXQOHEQNSA-N
Avg. Mass349.4693 Da
Molecular Weight349.4693
Monoisotopic Mass349.215424 Da
Nominal Mass349
ChemSpider ID21106248

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Dose Chart

Oral
Light40-75ug
Common75-175ug
Strong175-250ug
Heavy250ug+

Duration Chart

AL-LAD Duration Data
Onset45-120 minutes
Duration4-6 hours
After-effects1-24 hours

Auditory Effects

Psychological Effects

In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocin, LSA and ayahuasca, AL-LAD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced in terms of the specific style of thought stream which it produces and contains a large number of potential effects associated with both psychedelic tryptamines and phenethylamines. In comparison to LSD, it is often reported to be less anxiety-provoking and generally more emotionally comfortable and forgiving. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:

Pharmacological Effects

AL-LAD likely acts as a 5-HT2A partial agonist. The psychedelic effects are believed to come from AL-LAD’s efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain an object of scientific elucidation. AL-LAD shares many common traits with its parent compound LSD; in humans it appears to be roughly equal (if slightly less) in potency as well as similar in mechanism although the progression and duration of effects are compressed (while remaining qualitatively less intense and more manageable - perhaps due to being catabolised more readily). In rats, however, AL-LAD was measured to be around twice the potency of LSD, although anecdotal reports by humans have reported to be about equipotent if not slightly less potently psychoactive as LSD.

Physical Effects

  • Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, AL-LAD is regarded as being able primarily stimulating in nature in the same vein as LSD. This is in distinction to other, more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocybin which are more consistent in producing sedation and relaxedness.
  • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of AL-LAD can be described as proportionally intense in comparison to its accompanying visual and cognitive effects. It behaves as a euphoric, fast-moving, sharp and location specific tingling sensation. For some, it is manifested spontaneously at different unpredictable points throughout the experience, but for most it maintains a steady presence that rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. In comparison to LSD, it is a little less sharp in the tingling sensations it produces as but is otherwise essentially indistinguishable.
  • Perception of bodily lightness - This component typically accompanies any feelings of stimulation that this compound can produce.
  • Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induceable as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort without any apparent reason.
  • Changes in felt bodily form - This effect is often accompanied by a sense of warmth or unity and usually occurs during and up to the peak of the experience or directly afterward. Users can feel as if they are physically part of or conjoined with other objects. This is usually reported as feeling comfortable and peaceful in its sensations.
  • Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensations are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most AL-LAD trips. If level 8A geometry is reached, an intense sensation of suddenly becoming aware of and being able to feel every single nerve ending across a person's entire body all at once becomes consistently present.
  • Temperature regulation suppression - This component can occur with the use of any lysergamide or psychedelic, but reports suggest it may be pronounced in AL-LAD. It is highly advised that users of this compound, especially at heavier doses, monitor their bodily temperature and use techniques like hot showers or cold packs to regulate their core and brain temperature throughout the experience, and to generally always maintain proximity to a climate-controlled environment.
  • Increased bodily temperature
  • Nausea - Mild nausea is occasionally reported when this substance is consumed in moderate to high dosages, usually during the peak, and either passes soon after the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
  • Stamina enhancement - This is generally mild in comparison to traditional stimulants.
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Appetite suppression
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased perspiration
  • Muscle contractions
  • Muscle spasms
  • Increased libido
  • Excessive yawning - This effect is significantly less pronounced than it is with psilocybin and its related compounds, the four-position substituted tryptamines.
  • Pupil dilation
  • Increased salivation
  • Seizure - This is an effect whose likelihood is largely extrapolated from the seizures that have been reported from the use of LSD. They are thought to mainly be a risk in those who are genetically predisposed to them, particularly while accompanied by physically taxing conditions such as dehydration, fatigue or undernourishment.

Sensory Effects

  • Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.

Subjective Effects

While its subjective effects largely overlap with those of LSD, AL-LAD is commonly reported to be significantly shorter in its duration and less uncomfortable in both its negative physical side effects and general anxiety. Some users have proposed that this compound could potentially serve as an effective introductory psychedelic, alongside other shorter-lasting and manageable psychedelics like 2C-B or 4-HO-MET.

Visual Effects

Enhancements

Distortions

Geometry

The visual geometry evoked by AL-LAD can be described as more similar in appearance to that of LSD, 2C-B or 4-HO-MET than psilocin, LSA or DMT. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, algorithmic in form, unstructured in organization, brightly lit, colourful and cartoonish in scheme, organic in feel, flat in shading, soft in its edges, large in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, either angular or round in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. At higher dosages, it consistently results in states of Level 8B visual geometry over Level 8A.

In comparison to LSD specifically, AL-LAD's geometry tends to be more rounded in its corners, slightly softer in its edges, warmer in hue, and slightly less intricate in its form. Aside from this, it is otherwise identical in its appearance.

Hallucinatory states

AL-LAD is capable of producing a full range of low and high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is a less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin or DMT but considerably more likely to when compared to that of LSD. This can feel similar to the hallucinations which occur with 4-AcO-DMT but tends to occur almost exclusively at heavier doses. Some of these effects include:

Legal Status

AL-LAD is currently a gray area compound within many parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within most countries, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analog laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Austria: AL-LAD is technically not illegal but it may fall in the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD.
  • Denmark: As of August 25, 2015, AL-LAD is specifically named on the list of illegal substances.
  • Germany: AL-LAD is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act) as of July 18, 2019. Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.
  • Latvia: AL-LAD is illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.
  • Sweden: Following its sale as a designer drug, AL-LAD was made illegal in Sweden on January 26, 2016.
  • Switzerland: 21 substances, including AL-LAD, were added to the list of illegal substances including on December 1, 2015.
  • Turkey: AL-LAD is illegal in Turkey as of February 2016.
  • United Kingdom: As of January 7, 2015, AL-LAD is specifically named in the U.K. Misuse of Drugs Act as a Class A controlled substance.
  • United States: AL-LAD is unscheduled but can be considered to be an analogue of LSD, which would make it illegal to possess for human consumption under the Federal Analogue Act.
  • Sources

    References

    1. Hoffman, Andrew J.; Nichols, David E. (1985). "Synthesis and LSD-like discriminative stimulus properties in a series of N(6)-alkyl norlysergic acid N,N-diethylamide derivatives". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 28 (9): 1252–1255. :10.1021/jm00147a022.  0022-2623.
    2. Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). "#1. AL-LAD". TiHKAL: The Continuation. United States: Transform Press.  0-9630096-9-9. OCLC 38503252.
    3. Brandt, S. D.; Kavanagh, P. V.; Westphal, F.; Elliott, S. P.; Wallach, J.; Colestock, T.; Burrow, T. E.; Chapman, S. J.; Stratford, A.; Nichols, D. E.; Halberstadt, A. L. (2016). "Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6‐allyl‐6‐norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL‐LAD) and (2´S,4´S)‐lysergic acid 2,4‐dimethylazetidide (LSZ)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (1): 38–50. :10.1002/dta.1985.  1942-7603.
    4. Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). "Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939". Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. :10.1002/nrc.20023.  1520-6769.
    5. Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). "Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. :10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6.  0014-2999.
    6. Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). "Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons". Neurotoxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. :10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005.  0161-813X. PMID 17572501.
    7. Passie, T.; Halpern, J. H.; Stichtenoth, D. O.; Emrich, H. M.; Hintzen, A. "The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review" (PDF). CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 14: 295–314. :10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x.  1755-5930. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    8. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. :10.1007/BF03161089.  1556-9039.
    9. "Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer - ni nye stoffer tilføjet" (in Danish). Lægemiddelstyrelsen [Danish Medicines Ageny]. August 31, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    10. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
    11. "Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2019 Teil I Nr. 27 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. July 17, 2019. pp. 1083–1094. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    12. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
    13. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    14. "31 nya substanser klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara" (in Swedish). Folkhälsomyndigheten [Public Health Agency of Sweden]. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    15. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel,psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien: Änderung vom 2. November 2015" (PDF) (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    16. "Karar Sayısı : 2016/8548" (PDF) (in Turkish). Resmi Gazete. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
    17. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (June 10, 2014). "Update of the generic definition for tryptamines" (PDF). Government Digital Service. p. 12. Retrieved January 1, 2020.

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