Psilocin

Psilocin

Psilocin

Psychoactive Research chemicals are new synthetic substances that are structurally similar to the original drug, while being functional analogs. Research on the effects of, and treatment for, abuse of these drugs is limited due to the fact that they’re fairly new and have avoided mainstream notice. Research chemicals do not have a lot of human consumption data, and thus harm-reduction and special care should be taken if choosing to ingest them.

Psychedelics are drugs which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations. These chemicals offer some of the most intense psychological experiences and care should be taken when ingesting them.

Experimental drugs have extremely limited human consumption data. There is not enough reliable information about this substance. This is most likely because the substance is is not very old. Information on these substances is limite and incomplete. Please be cautioned. Always practice harm reduction.

Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most power and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.

Read the full disclaimer here.

Practice Harm Reduction. Proceed with Caution.

Description

Psilocin

Also known as:

  • 1H-Indol-4-ol, 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-[ACD/Index Name]
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 3-[2-(Diméthylamino)éthyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 4-hydroxy DMT
  • 4-HYDROXY-N,N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE
  • 4-OH-DMT
  • CMS88KUW0G
  • MFCD00079228
  • NM2625000
  • Psilocine
  • Psilocyn
  • Psilotsin
  • [520-53-6]
  • 3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)-4-hydroxyindole, N,N-Dimethyl-4-hydroxytryptamine
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-Indol-4-ol
  • 5-22-12-00014 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)[Beilstein]
  • 6-(1H-IMIDAZOL-1-YL)-7-NITRO-2,3-(1H,4H)-QUINOXALINEDIONE
  • CHEMBL65547
  • CX 59
  • EINECS 208-296-5
  • Indol-4-ol, 3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-
  • Indol-4-ol, 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-
  • N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxytryptamine
  • NM 2625000
  • P-7800
  • PSILOCIN-D10
  • UNII:CMS88KUW0G
  • UNII-CMS88KUW0G

Psilocin is a substutued tryptamine alkaloid, that is present in most psychedelic mushrooms. It is relatively unstable in solution due to the -OH group.

Summary

Psilocin is the primary psychoactive constituent in certain species of mushrooms, and as a closely related structural analog of the powerful visionary entheogen DMT (also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine). Psilocin was first isolated and named by Albert Hofmann in 1958. Its psychoactivity is thought to emerge from the close chemical similarities with the neurotransmitter serotonin, which enables it to interact with a range of serotonin receptor sites throughout the brain that are integral for sensory and cognitive processes.

Notably, while psilocin naturally co-occurs with psilocybin in significant amounts of most psilocybin-containing mushrooms, it is only ever rarely encountered in its synthetic form. Anecdotal reports describe pure psilocin as a more lucid and aggressive version of psilocybin mushrooms. Unlike other highly prohibited substances, psilocin is not considered to be addictive or physiologically toxic.

Nevertheless, adverse psychological reactions such as severe anxiety, paranoia and psychosis are always possible, particularly among those predisposed to mental illness. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History

You can help by expanding it.

Psilocin and its phosphorylated inactive precursor (i.e. prodrug) psilocybin were first isolated and named in 1958 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. Hofmann obtained the chemicals from laboratory-grown specimens of the entheogenic mushroom Psilocybe mexicana before proceeding to find their synthetic routes.

Chemistry

Psilocin

Psilocin

Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain.

4-HO-DMT is substituted at R4 of its indole heterocycle with an hydroxyl (-OH) functional group; it also contains two methyl groups CH3- bound to the terminal amine RN of the ethyl side chain.

This makes psilocin the 4-hydroxy structural analog of DMT, and dephosphorylated analog of psilocybin. Psilocin can be obtained by dephosphorylation of natural psilocybin under strongly acidic or under alkaline conditions via hydrolysis, which is how it becomes metabolically active in the human body as well. In terms of its physical properties, 4-HO-DMT is relatively unstable in solution due to its phenolic hydroxy (-OH) group.

In the presence of oxygen it readily forms bluish and dark black degradation products.

For this reason it is recommended to store it in optimal chemical storage conditions (i.e.

cool, dry, away from light) to avoid excessive degradation.

Common NamePsilocin
Systematic namePsilocin
FormulaC_{12}H_{16}N_{2}O
SMILESCN(C)CCc1c[nH]c2c1c(ccc2)O
Std. InChiInChI=1S/C12H16N2O/c1-14(2)7-6-9-8-13-10-4-3-5-11(15)12(9)10/h3-5,8,13,15H,6-7H2,1-2H3
Std. InChiKeySPCIYGNTAMCTRO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Avg. Mass204.2682 Da
Molecular Weight204.2682
Monoisotopic Mass204.126266 Da
Nominal Mass204
ChemSpider ID4807

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Dosing Guide

Oral
Light5-10mg
Common10-15mg
Strong15-25mg
Insufflated
Light2.5-5mg
Common5-10mg
Strong10-15mg

Duration

Oral
Onset15-30 minutes
Duration3-6 hours
After-effects3-12 hours

Interactions and Synergies

There are no existing interaction or synergy data for this drug.

General Information

Experiences
Oral
Vaporization
Come up
Dosage
Effects
After Effects
Avoid
Warning
Risks
Test Kits
Marguis Test Result
Tolerance
Detection
Half-life
Advice
Note
Note 2:
Note 3:

Effects

Pharmacological Effects

Psilocin’s psychedelic effects are believed to come from its interactions at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience remains the subject of ongoing scientific investigation. In contrast to LSD, this compound has no significant effect on dopamine receptors and only affects the noradrenergic system at very high dosages.

Subjective Effects

Anecdotal reports characterize the effects of psilocin as powerful and visionary, with a deep, all-encompassing headspace, immersive visuals with high-level geometry, and a rapid challenging come up that is both reportedly more lucid and anxiety-provoking than orally ingested psilocybin mushrooms; this may make the experience overly intense for those who are not experienced with psychedelics.

Physical Effects

  • Sedation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the tripper, psilocin is considered by most to be relaxing, stoning and mildly sedating. This sense of sedation is often accompanied by compulsive yawning.
    • Perception of bodily heaviness - This effect corresponds with the general sense of sedation and relaxation that characterizes psilocin experiences, this manifests as a bodily heaviness that discourages movement but is typically only prominent during the first half of the trip. This particular physical effect seems to be more commonly experienced and pronounced with certain “woodlover” species of mushrooms such as Psilocybe azurescens.
  • Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of psilocin can be described as a pleasurable, soft and all-encompassing tingling sensation or glow. This maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. Once the peak of the experience or sensation is reached it can feel incredibly euphoric and tranquil or heavy and immobilizing depending on the dose.
    • Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induceable for psychedelics like psilocin than it is with other substance classes like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort for no apparent reason.
  • Changes in felt bodily form - This effect is often accompanied by a sense of warmth or unity and usually occurs around the peak of the experience or directly after. Users can feel as if they are physically part of or conjoined with other objects. This is usually reported as feeling comfortable in its sensations and even peaceful.
  • Tactile enhancement - This effect is less prominent than with that of LSD or 2C-B but is still present and unique in its character. It is repeatedly described as feeling very primitive in its nature often times with the small hairs on the users arms or legs feeling slightly itchy or even ticklish against the skin.
  • Changes in felt gravity
  • Nausea - This effect can be greatly lessened or even completely avoided if the individual has an empty stomach prior to ingestion. It is often recommended that one either refrain from eating for approximately 6 to 8 hours beforehand, or eat a light meal 3 to 4 hours before if they are feeling physically fatigued. In the rare circumstances that pure psilocin is ingested this effect is considered to be much less prominent than it is with psilocybin mushrooms.
  • Excessive yawning - This effect seems to be uniquely pronounced among psilocin and related tryptamines. It can occur to a lesser degree on LSD and very rarely on psychedelic phenethylamines like mescaline. It typically occurs in combination with watery eyes.
  • Brain zaps - Although this effect is very rare, it can still occur for those susceptible to it. This component is however much less common and intense than it is with serotonin releasing agents such as MDMA.
  • Watery eyes
  • Muscle contractions
  • Olfactory hallucination
  • Frequent urination
  • Pupil dilation
  • Runny nose
  • Increased salivation
  • Seizure - This is a rare effect but can happen in those predisposed to them, especially while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, or fatigued.

Psychological Effects

The cognitive effects of psilocin are described by many as extremely relaxing, profound and stoning in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or 2C-B which tend to be energetic and stimulating, it is also regarded as being notably more lucid than psilocybin mushrooms but not as clearheaded as DMT. It contains a large number of both typical and unique psychedelic cognitive effects. The most prominent of these typical effects generally include:

Visual Effects

Enhancements

Distortions

Geometry

The visual geometry present on this substance can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT, ayahuasca and 2C-E than LSD or 2C-B. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in feel, structured in organization, brightly lit, and multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in its edges, large in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. It has a very "organic" feel and at higher dosages is significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8B visual geometry over level 8A.

Hallucinatory states

Psilocin and its various other forms produce a full range of high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects generally include:

Auditory Effects

Sensory Effects

  • Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
  • Dosage independent intensity

Transpersonal Effects

Anecdotally, components such as these are generally considered to be most consistent with the naturally occurring entheogenic tryptamines such as ayahuasca, ibogaine and psilocybin/psilocin.

Legal Status

Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, meaning the possession and sale of it (including psilocin and psilocybin-containing mushrooms) is prohibited in most countries.

  • Belgium: Possession and sale of mushrooms have been illegal since 1988.
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344, but mushrooms fall under religious use laws.
  • British Virgin Isles: The sale of mushrooms is illegal, but possession and consumption is legal.
  • Bulgaria: The sale of mushrooms is illegal, but possession and consumption is legal.
  • Canada: Psilocybin and psilocin are illegal to possess, obtain or produce without a prescription or license as they are Schedule III under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
  • Cyprus The possession, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Czech Republic: The distribution (including sale) of mushrooms is illegal, but consumption is legal. The possession of over 40 hallucinogenic caps is considered a crime if they contain more than 50mg of psilocin or the corresponding amount of psilocybin. The possession of more than 40g of hallucinogenic mycelium is considered a crime. If these limits are not exceeded, the act is considered a minor offence and a fine of up to 15 thousand CZK may be imposed.
  • Denmark: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Finland: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Germany: Psilocin is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I), former: Opiumgesetz (Opium Act) as of February 25, 1967. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
  • Greece: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Ireland: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Japan: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • Latvia: Hallucinogenic mushrooms, psilocin and psilocibyn are Schedule I controlled substances.
  • Mexico: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. Rules are relaxed regarding religious use however.
  • The Netherlands: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. However, due to a legal loophole, psilocybin truffles can be legally possessed, grown, sold and consumed.
  • New Zealand: Psilocybin is Class A.
  • Norway: Possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. Spores, even though not containing psilocybin, are also illegal.
  • Turkey: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • United Kingdom: According to the 2005 Drugs Act, fresh and prepared psilocybin mushrooms are Class A.
  • United States: Psilocybin and psilocin are illegal Schedule I drugs.

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    Sources

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    1. PsychonautWiki is a community-driven online encyclopedia that aims to document the field of psychonautics in a comprehensive, scientifically-grounded manner.
    2. Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
    3. PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
    4. Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
    5. Wikipedia

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