Psychedelics are substances (natural or laboratory made) which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might hallcuniate visually and auditorily.
This is a commonly used substance with well known effects, but that does not guarantee the substance will be safe. The safety profile has been established based on usage data commonly reported by others.
Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most powerful and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.
Mushrooms Also known as:
- 1H-Indol-4-ol, 3-[2
-(dimethylamino)eth[ACD/Index Name] yl]-
)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-[ACD/IUPAC Name] ol
)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-[German][ACD/IUPAC Name] ol
)éthyl]-1H-indol-4-[French][ACD/IUPAC Name] ol
- 4-hydroxy DMT
thyl)-4-hydroxyindo le, N,N-Dimethyl-4- hydroxytryptamine
- 5-22-12-00014 (Beil
stein Handbook Refe[Beilstein] rence)
- CX 59
- EINECS 208-296-5
- Indol-4-ol, 3-(2-(d
- Indol-4-ol, 3-[2-(d
- NM 2625000
Fungi containing psilocybin, a prototypical psychedelic with similar effects to LSD, but with a shorter duration; also considered as being more confusing, introspective and entheogenic. Usually refers to psilocybe mushrooms rather than Amanitas, which have different effects. Are considered physically safe if properly identified, which should always be done by an expert.
Murals dated 9000 to 7000 BCE found in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria depict horned beings dressed as dancers holding mushroom-like objects. 6,000-year-old pictographs discovered near the Spanish town of Villar del Humo illustrate several mushrooms that have been tentatively identified as Psilocybe hispanica, a hallucinogenic species native to the area. Archaeological artifacts from Mexico have also been interpreted by some scholars as evidence for ritual and ceremonial usage of psychoactive mushrooms in the Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. In Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, the mushrooms were called teonanácatl, or "God's flesh". Following the arrival of Spanish explorers to the New World in the 16th century, chroniclers reported the use of mushrooms by the natives for ceremonial and religious purposes. Accounts describe mushrooms being eaten in festivities for the accession of emperors and the celebration of successful business trips by merchants. After the defeat of the Aztecs, the Spanish forbade traditional religious practices and rituals that they considered "pagan idolatry", including ceremonial mushroom use. For the next four centuries, the Indians of Mesoamerica hid their use of entheogens from the Spanish authorities. American banker and amateur ethnomycologist R.
Gordon Wasson studied the ritual use of psychoactive mushrooms by the native population of a Mazatec village in Mexico. In 1957, Wasson described the psychedelic visions that he experienced during these rituals in “Seeking the Magic Mushroom”, an article published in the popular American weekly Life magazine. Later the same year they were accompanied on a follow-up expedition by French mycologist Roger Heim, who identified several of the mushrooms as Psilocybe species. Heim cultivated the mushrooms in France, and sent samples for analysis to Albert Hofmann, a chemist employed by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Sandoz (now Novartis). Hofmann, who had in 1938 created LSD, led a research group that isolated and identified the psychoactive compounds from Psilocybe mexicana.
He and his colleagues later synthesized a number of compounds chemically related to the naturally occurring psilocybin, to see how structural changes would affect psychoactivity. These included 4-HO-DET and 4-AcO-DMT. Sandoz marketed and sold pure psilocybin under the name Indocybin to physicians and clinicians worldwide without any reports of serious complications. In the early 1960s, Harvard University became a testing ground for psilocybin, through the efforts of Timothy Leary and his associates Ralph Metzner and Richard Alpert. Leary obtained synthesized psilocybin from Hofmann through Sandoz pharmaceutical.
Some studies, such as the Concord Prison Experiment, suggested promising results using psilocybin in clinical psychiatry. Leary and Alpert’s zealous advocacy for widespread hallucinogen use led to a well-publicized termination from Harvard. In response to concerns about the increase in unauthorized use of psychedelic substances by the general public, psilocybin and other hallucinogens received negative press and faced increasingly restrictive laws. In the United States, laws were passed in 1966 that prohibited the production, trade, or ingestion of hallucinogenic substances. Sandoz stopped producing LSD and psilocybin the same year.
Further backlash against LSD usage swept psilocybin along with it into the Schedule I category of illicit substances in 1970. Subsequent restrictions on the use of these substances in human research made funding for such projects difficult to obtain, and scientists who worked with psychedelic drugs faced being “professionally marginalized”. In the 1990s, hallucinogens and their effects on human consciousness were again the subject of scientific study, particularly in Europe. Advances in the neurosciences and the availability of brain imaging techniques have provided a reason for using substances like psilocybin to probe the “neural underpinnings of psychotic symptom formation including ego disorders and hallucinations”.
Recent studies in the United States have attracted attention from the popular press and thrust psilocybin into the vogue.
Both psilocybin and psilocin are organic tryptamine compounds.
They are chemically related to the amino acid tryptophan, and structurally similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain.
Psilocybin is substituted at R4 of its indole heterocycle with a phosphoryloxy (-PO) functional group.
It also contains two methyl groups CH3- bound to the terminal amine RN.
This makes psilocybin the 4-phosphoryloxy ring-substituted analog of DMT.. Psilocybin and psilocin occur in their pure forms as white crystalline powders.
Both are unstable in light, particularly while in solution, although their stability at low temperatures in the dark under an inert atmosphere is very good.
|Avg. Mass||204.2682 Da|
|Monoisotopic Mass||204.126266 Da|
|Mushrooms Duration Data|
- Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and psychedelics also cause occasional seizures.
The cognitive effects and general head space of psilocybin is described by many as extremely relaxing, profound and stoning in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or 2C-B which tend to be energetic and stimulating, it is also regarded as being significantly less clearheaded than other commonly used tryptamines such as DMT and ayahuasca.
- Emotion enhancement - This effect can be described as being more prominent, consistent and profound when compared to other traditional psychedelics such as mescaline or LSD. This can lead to strong feelings of compassion, urgency and even completely sporadic moments of intense emotional significance that can also be periodically affected by enhancement and suppression cycles.
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This effect differs from MDMA and other entactogens in that it isn't as central to the experience, feels less forced and more natural and is experienced at a less consistent rate. The sociability enhancement in particular only occurs rarely and it appears to be more emotional.
- Language suppression - This effect can be described as a perceived inability or general unwillingness to talk aloud despite feeling perfectly capable of formulating coherent thoughts within one's internal narrative. It is much more common among inexperienced users.
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is consistent in its manifestation and outrospection dominant.
- Enhancement and suppression cycles - This can be described as constant waves of extremely stimulated and profound thinking which are spontaneously surpassed in a cyclic fashion by waves of general thought suppression and mental intoxication. These two states seem to switch between each other in a consistent loop once every 20 to 60 minutes.
- Feelings of impending doom - This effect is usually only experienced during the come up phase but typically completely passes or subsides once the primary effects begin. It should be noted that this effect is relatively consistent and normal for psilocybin and related tryptamines which is why a positive and well-informed mindset is key. Less regularly this aspect can also occur during the peak but will most often be met afterwards with sensations of euphoria, catharsis or rejuvenation.
- Cognitive euphoria
- Autonomous voice communication
- Suggestibility enhancement
- Conceptual thinking
- Thought connectivity
- Thought deceleration
- Thought loops
- Thought organization
- Confusion - This effect occurs at a higher rate than other psychedelics such as LSD or DMT. It is more commonly observed in users who are inexperienced with psilocybin, or psychedelics in general
- Novelty enhancement
- Creativity enhancement
- Déjà vu
- Increased music appreciation
- Immersion enhancement
- Memory enhancement
- Memory suppression
- Simultaneous emotions
- Personal bias suppression
- Ego replacement - Although this effect is rare and more likely to occur with certain psychedelics like DMT or ayahuasca, it can still spontaneously occur, usually with higher doses.
- Personality regression - Although this effect is rare it can still manifest spontaneously and is thought to depend primarily on the user's set and setting.
- Rejuvenation - While this component can occur spontaneously at any point, it typically follows a difficult phase of the experience, if not the entire experience itself. It is however almost always felt during the offset of a psilocybin experience and tends to slowly transition into the after effects which are generally described as positive. These positive or mindful after effects are sometimes referred to as an "afterglow" and is both common and consistent for psilocybin and related tryptamines.
- Addiction suppression
- Time distortion
Psilocybin acts as a prodrug to psilocin, meaning it is not active until it is converted into psilocin in the body. Upon entering the body, psilocybin is dephosphorylated to psilocin in the intestinal mucosa by alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase. Psilocin’s psychedelic effects are believed to come from its agonist activity on serotonin 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT1A receptors. While 5-HT2A receptor agonism is considered necessary for hallucinogenic activity, the role of other receptor subtypes is much less understood. Unlike LSD, psilocin has no significant effect on dopamine receptors and only affects the noradrenergic system at very high dosages.
- Sedation - Psilocybin is reported to be relaxing, stoning and mildly sedating. This sense of sedation is often accompanied by compulsive yawning.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of psilocybin can be described as a pleasurable, soft and all-encompassing tingling sensation or glow. This maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. Once the peak of the experience or sensation is reached it can feel incredibly euphoric and tranquil or heavy and immobilizing depending on the dose.
- Perception of bodily heaviness- This effect corresponds to the general sense of sedation and relaxation that characterizes psilocybin experiences, this manifests as a bodily heaviness that discourages movement but is typically only prominent during the first half of the experience. This particular physical effect seems to be more commonly experienced and pronounced with certain “woodlover” species of mushrooms such as Psilocybe azurescens.
- Tactile enhancement - This effect is less prominent than with that of LSD or 2C-B but is still present and unique in its character. It is repeatedly described as feeling very primitive in its nature often times with the small hairs on the user's arms or legs feeling slightly itchy or even ticklish against the skin.
- Changes in felt bodily form - This effect is often accompanied by a sense of warmth or unity and usually occurs around the peak of the experience or directly after. Users can feel as if they are physically part of or conjoined with other objects. This is usually reported as feeling comfortable in its sensations and even peaceful.
- Nausea - This effect can be greatly lessened or even completely avoided if the individual has an empty stomach prior to ingestion. It is often recommended that one either refrain from eating for approximately 6 to 8 hours beforehand, or eat a light meal 3 to 4 hours before if they are feeling physically fatigued.
- Changes in felt gravity
- Excessive yawning - This effect seems to be uniquely pronounced among psilocybin and related tryptamines. It can occur to a lesser degree on LSD and very rarely on psychedelic phenethylamines like mescaline. It typically occurs in combination with watery eyes.
- Watery eyes
- Frequent urination
- Muscle contractions
- Olfactory hallucination
- Pupil dilation
- Runny nose
- Increased salivation
- Brain zaps - Although this effect is very rare, it can still occur for those susceptible to it. This component is however much less common and intense than it is with serotonin releasing agents such as MDMA.
- Seizure - This is a rare effect but can happen in a small population of those who are predisposed to them, particularly while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated, or fatigued.
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Dosage independent intensity
Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Colour enhancement - Relative to other psychedelics, this effect may appear to be more saturated.
- Pattern recognition enhancement
- Visual acuity enhancement - This effect typically occurs prominently at lower doses and becomes increasingly suppressed as one raises the dose.
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, realistic, slow and smooth in motion and static in appearance.
- Colour shifting
- Colour tinting
- Visual haze
- After images
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- Perspective distortions
- Depth perception distortions
- Environmental orbism
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry produced by psilocybin mushrooms can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT, ayahuasca and 2C-E than LSD or 2C-B. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in feel, structured in organization, brightly lit, and multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in its edges, large in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. It has a very "organic" feel and at higher dosages is significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8B visual geometry over level 8A.
Psilocybin and its various other forms produce a full range of high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects generally include:
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - This effect is very consistent in dark environments at appropriately high dosages. They can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical, or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
- External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - These are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
Internationally, psilocybin (but not psilocybin mushrooms) is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
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