Mushrooms

Mushrooms

Mushrooms

Psychedelics are drugs which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations. These chemicals offer some of the most intense psychological experiences and care should be taken when ingesting them.

This is a commonly used substance with well known and widely available human consumption data. This does not guarantee that the substance will be safe. The safety profile has been established based on usage data commonly available.

Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most power and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.

Read the full disclaimer here.

Practice Harm Reduction. Proceed with Caution.

Description

Mushrooms

Also known as:

  • 1H-Indol-4-ol, 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-[ACD/Index Name]
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 3-[2-(Diméthylamino)éthyl]-1H-indol-4-ol[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 4-hydroxy DMT
  • 4-HYDROXY-N,N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE
  • 4-OH-DMT
  • CMS88KUW0G
  • MFCD00079228
  • NM2625000
  • Psilocine
  • Psilocyn
  • Psilotsin
  • [520-53-6]
  • 3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-4-ol
  • 3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)-4-hydroxyindole, N,N-Dimethyl-4-hydroxytryptamine
  • 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-Indol-4-ol
  • 5-22-12-00014 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)[Beilstein]
  • 6-(1H-IMIDAZOL-1-YL)-7-NITRO-2,3-(1H,4H)-QUINOXALINEDIONE
  • CHEMBL65547
  • CX 59
  • EINECS 208-296-5
  • Indol-4-ol, 3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-
  • Indol-4-ol, 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-
  • N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxytryptamine
  • NM 2625000
  • P-7800
  • PSILOCIN-D10
  • UNII:CMS88KUW0G
  • UNII-CMS88KUW0G

Fungi containing psilocybin, a prototypical psychedelic with similar effects to LSD, but with a shorter duration; also considered as being more confusing, introspective and entheogenic. Usually refers to psilocybe mushrooms rather than Amanitas, which have different effects. Are considered physically safe if properly identified, which should always be done by an expert.

Summary

History

Murals dated 9000 to 7000 BCE found in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria depict horned beings dressed as dancers holding mushroom-like objects. 6,000-year-old pictographs discovered near the Spanish town of Villar del Humo illustrate several mushrooms that have been tentatively identified as Psilocybe hispanica, a hallucinogenic species native to the area. Archaeological artifacts from Mexico have also been interpreted by some scholars as evidence for ritual and ceremonial usage of psychoactive mushrooms in the Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. In Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, the mushrooms were called teonanácatl, or "God's flesh". Following the arrival of Spanish explorers to the New World in the 16th century, chroniclers reported the use of mushrooms by the natives for ceremonial and religious purposes. Accounts describe mushrooms being eaten in festivities for the accession of emperors and the celebration of successful business trips by merchants. After the defeat of the Aztecs, the Spanish forbade traditional religious practices and rituals that they considered "pagan idolatry", including ceremonial mushroom use. For the next four centuries, the Indians of Mesoamerica hid their use of entheogens from the Spanish authorities. American banker and amateur ethnomycologist R.

Gordon Wasson studied the ritual use of psychoactive mushrooms by the native population of a Mazatec village in Mexico. In 1957, Wasson described the psychedelic visions that he experienced during these rituals in “Seeking the Magic Mushroom”, an article published in the popular American weekly Life magazine. Later the same year they were accompanied on a follow-up expedition by French mycologist Roger Heim, who identified several of the mushrooms as Psilocybe species. Heim cultivated the mushrooms in France, and sent samples for analysis to Albert Hofmann, a chemist employed by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Sandoz (now Novartis). Hofmann, who had in 1938 created LSD, led a research group that isolated and identified the psychoactive compounds from Psilocybe mexicana.

He and his colleagues later synthesized a number of compounds chemically related to the naturally occurring psilocybin, to see how structural changes would affect psychoactivity. These included 4-HO-DET and 4-AcO-DMT. Sandoz marketed and sold pure psilocybin under the name Indocybin to physicians and clinicians worldwide without any reports of serious complications. In the early 1960s, Harvard University became a testing ground for psilocybin, through the efforts of Timothy Leary and his associates Ralph Metzner and Richard Alpert. Leary obtained synthesized psilocybin from Hofmann through Sandoz pharmaceutical.

Some studies, such as the Concord Prison Experiment, suggested promising results using psilocybin in clinical psychiatry. Leary and Alpert’s zealous advocacy for widespread hallucinogen use led to a well-publicized termination from Harvard. In response to concerns about the increase in unauthorized use of psychedelic substances by the general public, psilocybin and other hallucinogens received negative press and faced increasingly restrictive laws. In the United States, laws were passed in 1966 that prohibited the production, trade, or ingestion of hallucinogenic substances. Sandoz stopped producing LSD and psilocybin the same year.

Further backlash against LSD usage swept psilocybin along with it into the Schedule I category of illicit substances in 1970. Subsequent restrictions on the use of these substances in human research made funding for such projects difficult to obtain, and scientists who worked with psychedelic drugs faced being “professionally marginalized”. In the 1990s, hallucinogens and their effects on human consciousness were again the subject of scientific study, particularly in Europe. Advances in the neurosciences and the availability of brain imaging techniques have provided a reason for using substances like psilocybin to probe the “neural underpinnings of psychotic symptom formation including ego disorders and hallucinations”.

Recent studies in the United States have attracted attention from the popular press and thrust psilocybin into the vogue.

Chemistry

Mushrooms

Mushrooms

Both psilocybin and psilocin are organic tryptamine compounds.

They are chemically related to the amino acid tryptophan, and structurally similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain.

Psilocybin is substituted at R4 of its indole heterocycle with a phosphoryloxy (-PO) functional group.

It also contains two methyl groups CH3- bound to the terminal amine RN.

This makes psilocybin the 4-phosphoryloxy ring-substituted analog of DMT.. Psilocybin and psilocin occur in their pure forms as white crystalline powders.

Both are unstable in light, particularly while in solution, although their stability at low temperatures in the dark under an inert atmosphere is very good.

Common NamePsilocin
Systematic namePsilocin
FormulaC_{12}H_{16}N_{2}O
SMILESCN(C)CCc1c[nH]c2c1c(ccc2)O
Std. InChi
Std. InChiKey
Avg. Mass204.2682 Da
Molecular Weight204.2682
Monoisotopic Mass204.126266 Da
Nominal Mass204
ChemSpider ID4807

Subscribe for the latest updates

Dosing Guide

dose:
doseOral
Light0.5-1.5g
Common1.5-3.5g
Strong3.5g+

Duration

Mushrooms Duration Data
OnsetVaries
Duration4-6 hours
After-effects1-24 hours

Interactions and Synergies

Caution

  1. Cannabis
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  2. Amphetamines
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  3. Cocaine
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences

Dangerous

  1. Tramadol
    • Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and psychedelics also cause occasional seizures.

No Synergy

  1. Caffeine
  2. Opioids

General Information

Experiences
Oral
Vaporization
Come up
Dosage
Effectsvisual distortion, color enhancement, sense of connectedness with nature, sense of well being, sense of wonder
After Effects
Avoid
Warning
Risks
Test Kits
Marguis Test Result
Tolerance
Detection
Half-life
Advice
Note
Note 2:
Note 3:

Effects

Pharmacological Effects

Psilocybin acts as a prodrug to psilocin, meaning it is not active until it is converted into psilocin in the body. Upon entering the body, psilocybin is dephosphorylated to psilocin in the intestinal mucosa by alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase. Psilocin’s psychedelic effects are believed to come from its agonist activity on serotonin 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT1A receptors. While 5-HT2A receptor agonism is considered necessary for hallucinogenic activity, the role of other receptor subtypes is much less understood. Unlike LSD, psilocin has no significant effect on dopamine receptors and only affects the noradrenergic system at very high dosages.

Subjective Effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical Effects

  • Sedation - Psilocybin is reported to be relaxing, stoning and mildly sedating. This sense of sedation is often accompanied by compulsive yawning.
  • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of psilocybin can be described as a pleasurable, soft and all-encompassing tingling sensation or glow. This maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. Once the peak of the experience or sensation is reached it can feel incredibly euphoric and tranquil or heavy and immobilizing depending on the dose.
    • Perception of bodily heaviness- This effect corresponds to the general sense of sedation and relaxation that characterizes psilocybin experiences, this manifests as a bodily heaviness that discourages movement but is typically only prominent during the first half of the experience. This particular physical effect seems to be more commonly experienced and pronounced with certain “woodlover” species of mushrooms such as Psilocybe azurescens.
  • Tactile enhancement - This effect is less prominent than with that of LSD or 2C-B but is still present and unique in its character. It is repeatedly described as feeling very primitive in its nature often times with the small hairs on the user's arms or legs feeling slightly itchy or even ticklish against the skin.
  • Changes in felt bodily form - This effect is often accompanied by a sense of warmth or unity and usually occurs around the peak of the experience or directly after. Users can feel as if they are physically part of or conjoined with other objects. This is usually reported as feeling comfortable in its sensations and even peaceful.
  • Nausea - This effect can be greatly lessened or even completely avoided if the individual has an empty stomach prior to ingestion. It is often recommended that one either refrain from eating for approximately 6 to 8 hours beforehand, or eat a light meal 3 to 4 hours before if they are feeling physically fatigued.
  • Changes in felt gravity
  • Excessive yawning - This effect seems to be uniquely pronounced among psilocybin and related tryptamines. It can occur to a lesser degree on LSD and very rarely on psychedelic phenethylamines like mescaline. It typically occurs in combination with watery eyes.
  • Watery eyes
  • Frequent urination
  • Muscle contractions
  • Olfactory hallucination
  • Pupil dilation
  • Runny nose
  • Increased salivation
  • Brain zaps - Although this effect is very rare, it can still occur for those susceptible to it. This component is however much less common and intense than it is with serotonin releasing agents such as MDMA.
  • Seizure - This is a rare effect but can happen in a small population of those who are predisposed to them, particularly while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated, or fatigued.

Psychological Effects

The cognitive effects and general head space of psilocybin is described by many as extremely relaxing, profound and stoning in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or 2C-B which tend to be energetic and stimulating, it is also regarded as being significantly less clearheaded than other commonly used tryptamines such as DMT and ayahuasca.

Visual Effects

Enhancements

Distortions

Geometry

The visual geometry produced by psilocybin mushrooms can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT, ayahuasca and 2C-E than LSD or 2C-B. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in feel, structured in organization, brightly lit, and multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in its edges, large in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. It has a very "organic" feel and at higher dosages is significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8B visual geometry over level 8A.

Hallucinatory states

Psilocybin and its various other forms produce a full range of high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects generally include:

Auditory Effects

Sensory Effects

  • Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
  • Dosage independent intensity

Transpersonal Effects

Anecdotally, these components are generally considered to be most consistent with the naturally-occurring entheogenic tryptamines such as ayahuasca, ibogaine and psilocybin. They are listed below as follows:

Legal Status

Internationally, psilocybin (but not psilocybin mushrooms) is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

  • Austria: Psilocybin containing mushrooms are illegal to possess in dried form, to sell and to offer, give or get somebody under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich). It is illegal to grow them with the intention of "producing psychotropic substances" (as psilocin and psilocybin) mentioned in BGBl. III Nr. 148/1997 .
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344, but mushrooms fall under religious use laws.
  • British Virgin Isles: The sale of mushrooms is illegal, but possession and consumption is legal.
  • Bulgaria: The sale of mushrooms is illegal, but possession and consumption is legal.
  • Belgium: Possession and sale of mushrooms have been illegal since 1988.
  • Canada: Psilocybin and psilocin are illegal to possess, obtain or produce without a prescription or license as they are Schedule III under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
  • Czech Republic: The distribution (including sale) of mushrooms is illegal, but consumption is legal. The possession of over 40 hallucinogenic caps is considered a crime if they contain more than 50mg of psilocin or the corresponding amount of psilocybin. The possession of more than 40g of hallucinogenic mycelium is considered a crime. If these limits are not exceeded, the act is considered a minor offense and a fine of up to 15 thousand CZK may be imposed.
  • Cyprus: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Denmark: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Finland: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Germany: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Greece: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Ireland: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Iceland: The sale of Psilocybin mushrooms is illegal, but possession and consumption is legal.
  • Japan: Psilocybin mushrooms are illegal to possess, grow, sale, and consume.
  • Latvia: Hallucinogenic mushrooms, psilocin and psilocybin are Schedule I controlled substances.
  • Mexico: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. Rules are relaxed regarding religious use however.
  • The Netherlands: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. However, due to a legal loophole, psilocybin truffles can be legally possessed, grown, sold and consumed.
  • New Zealand: Psilocybin is a Class A substance.
  • Norway: Possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal. Spores, even though not containing psilocybin, are also illegal.
  • Sweden: Sveriges riksdag added psilocybin mushrooms to schedule I ("substances, plant materials and fungi which normally do not have medical use") as narcotics in Sweden as of Aug 1, 1999, published by Medical Products Agency.
  • Turkey: The possession, growth, sale and consumption of mushrooms is illegal.
  • United Kingdom: According to the 2005 Drugs Act, fresh and prepared psilocybin mushrooms are Class A.
  • United States: Psilocybin and psilocin are Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, process, or distribute without a license from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

  • References

    1. Guzmán, G., Allen, J. W., & Gartz, J. (1998). A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion. Ann. Mus. Civ. Rovereto, 14, 189-280.
    2. Tylš, F., Páleníček, T., & Horáček, J. (2014). Psilocybin–summary of knowledge and new perspectives. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(3), 342-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006
    3. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
    4. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
    5. Samorini G. (1992). "The oldest representations of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the world (Sahara Desert, 9000–7000 B.P.)". Integration. 2 (3): 69–78.
    6. Akers BP, Ruiz JF, Piper A, Ruck CA (2011). "A prehistoric mural in Spain depicting neurotropic Psilocybe mushrooms?". Economic Botany. 65 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1007/s12231-011-9152-5.
    7. Hofmann A. (1980). "The Mexican relatives of LSD". LSD: My Problem Child. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 49–71. ISBN 978-0-07-029325-0
    8. Wasson RG. (13 May 1957). "Seeking the magic mushroom". Life. Time Inc.: 101–20. ISSN 0024-3019.
    9. Heim R. (1957). "Notes préliminaires sur les agarics hallucinogènes du Mexique" [Preliminary notes on the hallucination-producing agarics of Mexico]. Revue de Mycologie (in French). 22 (1): 58–79.
    10. Hofmann A, Heim R, Brack A, Kobel H (1958). "Psilocybin, ein psychotroper Wirkstoff aus dem mexikanischen Rauschpilz Psilocybe mexicana Heim" [Psilocybin, a psychotropic drug from the Mexican magic mushroom Psilocybe mexicana Heim]. Experientia (in German). 14 (3): 107–9. doi:10.1007/BF02159243. PMID 13537892.
    11. Hofmann A, Heim R, Brack A, Kobel H, Frey A, Ott H, Petrzilka T, Troxler F (1959). "Psilocybin und Psilocin, zwei psychotrope Wirkstoffe aus mexikanischen Rauschpilzen" [Psilocybin and psilocin, two psychotropic substances in Mexican magic mushrooms]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 42 (5): 1557–72. doi:10.1002/hlca.19590420518.
    12. Marley G. (2010). "Psilocybin: gateway to the soul or just a good high?". Chanterelle Dreams, Amanita Nightmares: The Love, Lore, and Mystique of Mushrooms. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 166. ISBN 1-60358-214-2.
    13. Passie T, Seifert J, Schneider U, Emrich HM (2002). "The pharmacology of psilocybin". Addiction Biology. 7 (4): 357–64. doi:10.1080/1355621021000005937. PMID 14578010.
    14. Leary T, Litwin GH, Metzner R (1963). "Reactions to psilocybin administered in a supportive environment". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 137 (6): 561–73. doi:10.1097/00005053-196312000-00007. PMID 14087676.
    15. Leary T, Metzner R, Presnell M, Weil G, Schwitzgebel R, Kinne S (1965). "A new behavior change program using psilocybin". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice. 2 (2): 61–72. doi:10.1037/h0088612.
    16. Matsushima Y, Eguchi F, Kikukawa T, Matsuda T (2009). "Historical overview of psychoactive mushrooms" (PDF). Inflammation and Regeneration. 29 (1): 47–58. https://doi.org/10.2492/inflammregen.29.47. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012.
    17. Griffiths RR, Grob CS (2010). "Hallucinogens as medicine" (PDF). Scientific American. 303 (6): 77–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1210-76.
    18. Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F, Vollenweider FX (2011). "Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 25 (11): 1434–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110382466. PMID 20855349.
    19. Keim B. (1 July 2008). "Psilocybin study hints at rebirth of hallucinogen research". Wired.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
    20. Gilbert J, Şenyuva H (2009). Bioactive Compounds in Foods. John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-4443-0229-5.
    21. Horita, A., & Weber, L. J. (1961). Dephosphorylation of psilocybin to psilocin by alkaline phosphatase. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 106(1), 32-34.
    22. Anastos, N., Barnett, N.W., Pfeffer, F. M., et al. 2006. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography. Sci Justice ;46(2):91-96
    23. Petri, G., Expert, P., Turkheimer, F., Nutt, D., Hellyer, P. J., & Vaccarino, F. (2014). Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks, 14–18. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.0873
    24. Psilocybin Investigator’s Brochure | http://www.maps.org/research/psilo/psilo_ib.pdf
    25. Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., Cosimano, M. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2014). Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(11), 983-992. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881114548296
    26. Armstrong, B. D., Paik, E., Chhith, S., Lelievre, V., Waschek, J. A., & Howard, S. G. (2004). Potentiation of (DL)‐3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939. Neuroscience Research Communications, 35(2), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1002/nrc.20023
    27. Potentiation of MDMA-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists | https://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/potentiation-of-34-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-dopamine
    28. Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT(2A)-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17572501
    29. Gartz J, Allen JW, Merlin MD (2004). "Ethnomycology, biochemistry, and cultivation of Psilocybe samuiensis Guzmán, Bandala and Allen, a new psychoactive fungus from Koh Samui, Thailand". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 43 (2): 73–80. PMID 7967658. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(94)90006-X.
    30. Grob, C. S., Danforth, A. L., Chopra, G. S., Hagerty, M., McKay, C. R., Halberstadt, A. L., & Greer, G. R. (2011). Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(1), 71-78. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.116
    31. Carhart-Harris, R. L., Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M., Erritzoe, D., Kaelen, M., ... & Taylor, D. (2016). Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(7), 619-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30065
    32. Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T., Stone, J. M., Reed, L. J., Colasanti, A., ... & Hobden, P. (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(6), 2138-2143. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119598109
    33. Farb, N. A. S., Anderson, A. K., Bloch, R. T., & Segal, Z. V. (2011). Mood Linked Responses in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Predict Relapse in Patients with Recurrent Unipolar Depression. Biological Psychiatry, 70(4), 366–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.03.009
    34. Bhagwagar, Z., Hinz, R., Taylor, M., Fancy, S., Cowen, P., & Grasby, P. (2006). Increased 5-HT 2A receptor binding in euthymic, medication-free patients recovered from depression: a positron emission study with [11 C] MDL 100,907. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(9), 1580-1587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.9.1580
    35. Meyer, J. H., McMain, S., Kennedy, S. H., Korman, L., Brown, G. M., DaSilva, J. N., ... & Houle, S. (2003). Dysfunctional attitudes and 5-HT2 receptors during depression and self-harm. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 90-99. https://www.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.90
    36. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607604644
    37. Diaz, Jaime (1996). How Drugs Influence Behavior: A Neurobehavioral Approach. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780023287640
    38. https://www.jusline.at/gesetz/smg/paragraf/27
    39. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/(1)RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
    40. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act of Canada
    41. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (I saraksts) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
    42. "Sidan kunde inte visas (#404) - Läkemedelsverket". 25 September 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013.
    43. Legislation - Drugs Act 2005| http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/17/contents
    44. FDA - Controlled Substances Act | http://archive.today/2017.02.01-114453/http://www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/legislation/ucm148726.htm

    Resources

      Sources

      Information made possible with:

      1. PsychonautWiki is a community-driven online encyclopedia that aims to document the field of psychonautics in a comprehensive, scientifically-grounded manner.
      2. Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
      3. PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
      4. Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
      5. Wikipedia

      Additional APIs were used to construct this information. Thanks for ChemSpider, NCBI, PubChem etc.

      Data is constantly updated so please check back later to see if there is any more available information on this substance.