Psychedelics are substances (natural or laboratory made) which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might hallcuniate visually and auditorily.

This is a commonly used substance with well known effects, but that does not guarantee the substance will be safe. The safety profile has been established based on usage data commonly reported by others.

Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most powerful and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.

Read the full disclaimer here.


Cannabis Also known as:

  • (-)-δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • Δ9--THC
  • (-)-trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-trans-δ9-THC
  • (-)-δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ9-THC
  • (-)-δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-Triméthyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tétrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromén-1-ol[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 6H-Dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR-trans)-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR,10aR)-[ACD/Index Name]
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR-trans)-
  • Dronabinolum[Latin]
  • Marinol[Trade name]
  • Marinol (TN)
  • MFCD00083207[MDL number]
  • δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ1-THC
  • δ9-THC
  • δ9-THC
  • (-)- δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-(6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol
  • (-)-3,4-trans-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-trans-δ 1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-trans-δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-trans-δ 9-THC
  • (-)-trans-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ 1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ 9-THC
  • (-)-δ 9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ(sup 1)-3,4-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ(sup9)-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (-)-δ9-(trans)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (10R,10aR)-6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-3-amyl-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H,6aH,7H,8H,10aH-benzo[c]isochromen-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6a,7,8,10a-Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6a,7,8,10a-Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • (6aR-trans)-6a,7,8,10a-Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • (L)-δ 1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (l)-δ(sup 1)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (l)-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • (L)-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 1-trans-δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 1-trans-δ(sup 9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 1-trans-δ(sup9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 1-trans-δ(sup9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 1-trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • 3-Pentyl-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • 6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • 6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • 6aR,7,8,10aR-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • 6H-Dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR,10aR)-
  • 6H-Dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, trans-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b, d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b, d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR-trans)-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b, d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, trans-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8, 10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6, 9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, (6aR-trans)-
  • 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol, 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-, trans-
  • Cannabinol, 1-trans-δ(sup 9)-tetrahydro-
  • Cannabinol, 1-trans-δ(sup9)-tetrahydro-
  • Cannabinol, δ1-tetrahydro-
  • Cannabinol, δ1-tetrahydro-
  • Deltanyne
  • Exocyclic δ (9)(11)-Tetrahydrocannabiol
  • Δ9-THC
  • Δ9-THC (CRM)
  • L-trans-δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • L-trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • L-trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • L-δ 1-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • L-δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • l-δ1-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • L-δ1-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • Marinol®
  • Maxepa
  • Primolut
  • Syndros
  • Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol δ9
  • Tetranabinex
  • THC
  • trans-6a,7,8,10a-Tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  • trans-δ (-)-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • trans-δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • trans-δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ 1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ 1-THC
  • δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ 9-THC
  • δ 9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ(1)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol
  • δ(9)-THC
  • δ(sup 1)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ(sup 1)-thc
  • δ(sup 9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ(sup 9)-thc
  • δ(sup9)-THC
  • δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol (VAN)
  • δ1-THC
  • δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (VAN)
  • δ-9-THC
  • δ-9-THC
  • Δ9-THC
  • δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol

A common and widely used psychoactive plant, which is beginning to enjoy legal status for medical and even recreational use in some parts of the world. Usually smoked or eaten, primary effects are relaxation and an affinity towards food - a state described as being ‘stoned.’


The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which makes up one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 84 other cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG). The genus cannabis is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The earliest recorded uses of cannabis date from the 3rd millennium BC.

At least three species are recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. In modern times, cannabis is used for recreational or medicinal and religious or spiritual purposes. Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries.

However, there is a recent growing trend towards decriminalization and legalization and the plant is legal in some states and countries such as Amsterdam. According to a United Nations report, cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the world. In 2004, the U.

N. estimated that global consumption patterns of cannabis indicated that approximately 4% of the adult world population (162 million people) used cannabis annually and that approximately 0. 6% (22.

5 million) of people used cannabis daily.


Tombs in China reveal humans were smoking cannabis 2500 years ago. The potency of illicit cannabis plant material has consistently increased over time since 1995 from ~4% in 1995 to ~12% in 2014. The cannabidiol content has decreased on average from ~.28% in 2001 to <.15% in 2014, resulting in a change in the ratio of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to cannabidiol from 14 times in 1995 to ~80 times in 2014.




Cannabis contains more than 460 compounds; at least 80 of these are cannabinoids, chemical compounds that interact with cannabinoid receptors in the brain.

The most common cannabinoids are listed below:

Common Name(-)-.DELTA.9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
Systematic name(-)-δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol
SMILESCCCCCc1cc(c2c(c1)OC([[email protected]]3[[email protected]]2C=C(CC3)C)(C)C)O
Std. InChi
Std. InChiKey
Avg. Mass314.4617 Da
Molecular Weight314.4617
Monoisotopic Mass314.224579 Da
Nominal Mass314
ChemSpider ID15266

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Dose Chart


Duration Chart

Onset1-10 minutes
Duration1-4 hours
After-effects2-24 hours



  1. Mushrooms
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  2. LSD
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  3. DMT
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  4. Mescaline
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  5. DOx
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  6. NBOMes
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  7. 2C-x
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  8. 2C-T-x
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  9. αMT
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics. Small amounts can reduce nausea with aMT but take care.
  10. 5-MeO-xxT
    • Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and somewhat unpredictable synergy with psychedelics.
  11. Amphetamines
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  12. Cocaine
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences


    Low Synergy

    1. Benzodiazepines

    No Synergy

    1. Caffeine
    2. SSRIs

    High Synergy

    1. Ketamine
    2. MXE
    3. DXM
    4. PCP
    5. N2O
    6. MDMA
      • Large amounts of cannabis may cause strong and somewhat unpredictable experiences in combination with MDMA. Cannabis should be saved for towards the end of the experience if possible.
    7. Alcohol
      • In excess, this combination can cause nausea.
    8. GHB/GBL
    9. Opioids
    10. Tramadol
    11. MAOIs

    Auditory Effects

    Psychological Effects

    Pharmacological Effects

    The most psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant is tetrahydrocannabinol (or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), commonly known as THC. Other cannabinoids include delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG); they have less psychotropic effects than THC, but may play a role in the overall effect of cannabis. The most studied are THC, CBD and CBN. The entourage effect is a proposed mechanism by which compounds present in cannabis which are largely non-psychoactive by themselves modulate the overall psychoactive effects of the plant (these resulting principally from the action of the main psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)). THC appears to alter mood and cognition through its agonist actions on the CB1 receptors, which inhibit a secondary messenger system (adenylate cyclase) in a dose dependent manner. Via CB1 activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects. Cannabidiol acts as an allosteric modulator of the mu and delta opioid receptors. THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabis high remains subject to on-going scientific investigation. Drugs that activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors are known to upregulate and enhance 5-HT2A receptor activity. The ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathway has been shown to mediate this effect, but the exact biochemical mechanism is unknown. This upregulation and enhancement of the 5-HT2A receptor is why cannabis potentiates the effects of psychedelic drugs.

    Physical Effects

    • Sedation - Although certain strains of cannabis (e.g. sativas) produce a mild sense of stimulation at low to moderate doses, its effects are primarily sedating and can even be hypnotic. These relaxing properties are suppressed by consciously forcing oneself to engage in physical activities. In terms of its stimulating effects, these subjective aspects of THC typically last 2-3 hours, whereas the half-life of CBD, which is more relaxing, is 9 hours. Thus, the first dose of cannabis after a period of abstinence will tend to be far more stimulating than subsequent doses, which must compete with the relaxing effects of previous doses. Because the relaxation both persists much longer and shares many of the same pathways as the stimulation, regular ingestion of THC also leads to increased tolerance to its stimulating effects, but not to its relaxing effects.
    • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of cannabis is extremely variable in both its style and intensity and does not manifest itself consistently. It depends entirely on the individual strain as well as dose and method of intake. In general, however, it can be described as a relatively pleasurable, sometimes warm, soft, intoxicating and all-encompassing sensation. It maintains a presence that quickly rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached before slowly dissipating. At high dosages, it can cause some users to feel shaky or nerve-wracked.
    • Appetite enhancement - The feeling of increased appetite following the use of cannabis has been documented for hundreds of years and is known colloquially as "the munchies" in popular culture. Cannabis has been shown in recent studies to stimulate the release of the hormone ghrelin which is normally released by the stomach when empty as a signal for the brain to search for food
    • Appetite suppression - This effect may present itself at the very beginning of the intoxication and is likely due mostly to the cannabinoid THCV.
    • Gustatory enhancement - Cannabis is regularly known to improve the taste of foods.
    • Bodily pressures - This can be described a subtle or distinct pressure felt behind one's eye(s).
    • Bronchodilation
    • Changes in felt gravity - At extremely high doses, many users report a feeling of being pulled backwards across vast distances (sometimes at powerful speeds). This sensation progressively increases in intensity and often eventually becomes unbearable if one leans backwards or lies down; however, it disappears altogether once the user sits up or leans forward.
    • Increased heart rate - Decreased blood pressure can result in an increased heart rate, although this varies depending on the user.
    • Decreased blood pressure
    • Dizziness - Cannabis has the potential to cause dizziness at very high doses. However, this effect is far more inconsistent than substances such as alcohol.
    • Dehydration
    • Dry mouth - This is known colloquially as "cotton mouth" in popular American and United Kingdom culture. Edible forms of cannabis can make this effect feel much more intense and uncomfortable.
    • Increased perspiration - This effect is experienced almost exclusively with the convection of solvent extracted hash oil and appears almost immediately after one exhales. This is likely due to the high THC concentration and a relatively rapid onset that can result in a significant decrease in blood pressure, often causing the user to sweat.
    • Motor control loss - This substance causes a partial to moderate suppression of motor control which intensifies proportional to dose, but rarely results in a complete inability to walk and perform basic movements.
    • Muscle relaxation
    • Muscle spasms - This effect is usually very subtle and is more likely to occur at high doses.
    • Nausea - At heavy dosages and overdoses, cannabis can be nauseating. This usually passes after the first 30 or 40 minutes of the intoxication and tends to transition later into nausea suppression.
    • Nausea suppression - Cannabis is effective for suppressing nausea induced by both general illness and substances. It is considered an effective treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and is a reasonable option in those who do not improve following preferential treatment.
    • Laughter fits - Cannabis can often cause spurts of laughter for little, to no reason. This is often where the term "giggles" comes from when people are high off cannabis .
    • Pain relief - This substance has been reported as useful for treating certain headaches and chronic pain, including pain caused by neuropathy and possibly fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Perception of bodily lightness or Perception of bodily heaviness - Depending on the specific strain of cannabis, one can find themselves with a body which can feel either physically heavier or lighter than it usually would in a style that is entirely dependent upon dose or tolerance of the individual.
    • Physical euphoria - This rarely exceeds mild to moderate levels of intensity, and although this effect may be present for many users there are also a number of individuals who report experiencing no euphoria at all. For some, this effect is notably more prominent with edible forms of cannabis.
    • Seizure suppression - There are many anecdotal reports of the successful treatment of seizures in epilepsy with the use of low THC/high CBD marijuana. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to draw conclusions about its safety or efficacy. Studies in animals have found that cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and other cannabinoids have anticonvulsant properties.
    • Tactile enhancement
    • Vasodilation - THC decreases blood pressure which dilates the blood vessels and increases blood flow throughout the body. The arteries in the eyeball expand from the decreased blood pressure. Studies in the 1970s showed cannabis, when smoked or eaten, effectively lowers intraocular pressure by about 25%, as much as standard medications. These enlarged arteries often produce a bloodshot red eye effect. It is precisely this effect on the human eye that makes cannabis an effective medicine for glaucoma.

    Sensory Effects

    • Synaesthesia - This is a very rare and typically non-reproducible effect. It is particularly mild when compared to the states capable of being produced by other hallucinogens, particularly serotonergic psychedelics. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood for this effect to occur, but otherwise only seems to be possible among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.

    Subjective Effects

    Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

    Visual Effects

    Cannabis inconsistently induces visual and hallucinatory states at higher doses. These hallucinations are very mild and ill-defined compared to the effect of hallucinogens like psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

    • Colour enhancement - This effect is often faint, but has been known to increase in its likeness and/or appearance among "regular" users of psychedelics.
    • Acuity suppression - THC is known to decrease intraocular pressure. This can sometimes result in blurry vision for some people.
    • Brightness alteration - THC has been shown to modulate the activity of cone cells in the eye. This can cause an increased sensitivity to light, causing one's vision to appear brighter than normal.
    • Tracers - This effect can be seen at high doses and is generally quite mild. It generally does not extend past level 2.
    • Geometry - Cannabis is capable of inconsistently inducing mild psychedelic geometry at extremely high doses within many users who also regularly use psychedelics. It is capable of inducing these in a visual style which seems to be an averaged out depiction of all the psychedelics one has used within the past. These rarely extend beyond level 4 and are considered to be mild, fine, small and zoomed out (but often well-defined).
    • Internal hallucination - The internal hallucinations of cannabis are extremely variable in their appearance depending on the dosage, tolerance and the individual's brain chemistry. They are very inconsistent and for some even rare but can be described as being fainter in appearance when compared to traditional psychedelics and do not seem to be as regularly composed of visual geometry. The most common way in which they manifest themselves is through hypnagogic scenarios. They are most common during high dosages in dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as both lucid and delirious in believability, fixed in style, autonomous in controllability, equal in new experiences and memory replays in content and are primarily geometry-based in style.
    • Peripheral information misinterpretation - This very inconsistent effect tends to be mild and fleeting in contrast to other more powerful psychoactive substances. This effect rarely occurs on cannabis alone but when it does it is often in high dosages and/or when the individual has a low tolerance. It is more likely to manifest itself in certain environments as opposed to others and is more likely to happen if one has used stronger substances recently, typically within the past 24 to 36 hours.

    Legal Status

    The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and (in regards to medical) how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs that was ratified in 1961, along with the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The World Health Organization (WHO) is calling for whole-plant marijuana, as well as cannabis resin, to be removed from Schedule IV—the most restrictive category of a 1961 drug convention signed by countries from around the world.

  1. Responsible use
  2. Hallucinogens
  3. Cannabinoids
  4. Synthetic cannabinoids
  5. Sources


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