Psychedelics are substances (natural or laboratory made) which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might hallcuniate visually and auditorily.
Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most powerful and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.
Ayahuasca Also known as:
ine, N,N-dimethyl-[ACD/Index Name]
,N-dimethylethanami[ACD/IUPAC Name] ne
,N-diméthyléthanami[French][ACD/IUPAC Name] ne
- Indole, 3-(2-(dimet
- Indole, 3-[2- (dime
- Indole, 3-[2-(dimet
- MFCD00055989[MDL number]
- tryptamine, dimethy
- 3-[2- (Dimethylamin
- 5-22-10-00048 (Beil
stein Handbook Refe[Beilstein] rence)
- N N-DIMETHYL-1H-IND
- WLN: T56 BMJ D2N1&1
A concoction made of two or more plants that contain at least an MAOI and DMT, the combination of which allows the DMT to work orally. Typically associated to south american cultures. Also, sometimes approximated synthetically by taking an external MAOI with extracted DMT. Causes intense, spiritually orientated hallucinogenic experiences.
Of these, it most commonly consists of a DMT-containing plant source in combination with one that contains an MAOI or RIMA (typically sources like B. caapi vine or syrian rue) to produce uniquely potent, sometimes medicinal, psychedelic effects. The co-consumption of an MAOI agent is necessary for the combination to work, as the DMT molecule (which is a monoamine closely related to serotonin) is rendered almost entirely inactive when digested by itself due to the presence of monoamine oxidase enzymes in the stomach, which rapidly degrades it.
Ayahuasca is used as a traditional spiritual medicine in ceremonies among the Indigenous peoples of Amazonian Peru, many of whom say that they received the instructions in its use directly from the plants and plant spirits themselves. Ayahuasca was first described outside of Indigenous communities in the early 1950s by Harvard ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes, who became aware of the Native communities who use it for divinatory and healing purposes. As is the case with psychedelics in general, ayahuasca is not considered to be dependence-forming or addictive by the research and medical community.
Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychotic breaks can still always occur, particularly among those predisposed to psychiatric disorders. While these negative reactions or “bad trips” can often be attributed to factors like the user’s inexperience or improper preparation of their set and setting, they have been known to happen spontaneously among even the most experienced of users as well. This is why despite its scientifically-backed reputation for possessing both negligible-to-no physical and neurotoxicity, it is still highly advised to approach this powerful and unpredictable hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of precaution, and harm reduction practices if one chooses to use it.
A 1000-year-old collection of drug paraphernalia found in a rock shelter in Bolivia features traces of five psychoactive chemicals, including cocaine and components of ayahuasca. Ayahuasca ceremoniesThere have been several documented cases of avoidable deaths caused by frauds pretending to be shamans during "traditional" ayahuasca ceremonies. The ingredient known to cause problems is known specifically as brugmansia, which can cause issues when co-administered with an MAOI. An effective ayahuasca brew does not have to be more complicated than a suitable source of DMT (such as mimosa or acacia) and a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA or MAOI).
Using other ingredients along with the ayahuasca can potentially be dangerous; any potential interactions should be carefully researched before ingestion. Another concern of ayahuasca ceremonies is the culture of mysticism and pseudoscience produced from centuries of mythological ritual, leading to a bias following the delusion of a single cultural narrative. There is an irrational belief that ayahuasca should only to be used in the Amazon rainforest in the presence of a shaman. This belief leads many to shun the idea of taking ayahuasca outside of this potentially toxic environment for no logical reason.
|Avg. Mass||188.2688 Da|
|Monoisotopic Mass||188.131348 Da|
|Ayahuasca Duration Data|
Internationally, DMT is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, however, that the plants containing it are not subject to international control:
- Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
- Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
- Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics." Pharmacological Reviews, 68(2), 264-355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
- British backpacker dies after taking hallucinogenic brew in Colombia | http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/apr/27/british-backpacker-dies-hallucinogenic-drug-colombia
- Kiwi traveler in Peru dies after Amazon drug ritual | http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=11516673
- The Visual Effects of Ayahuasca in Humans: The First Study to Employ a Ketanserin Blockade | http://www.beckleyfoundation.org/2016/03/the-visual-effects-of-ayahuasca-in-humans-the-first-study-to-employ-a-ketanserin-blockade/
- Pharmacokinetics of Hoasca alkaloids in healthy humans (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874198001688
- RIBA, J. Human Pharmacology of Ayahuasca. Doctoral Thesis: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2003.
- Don Jose |title=The Shaman & Ayahuasca: Journeys to Sacred Realms |year=2011 |pages=81–85
- Sociopsychotherapeutic Functions of Ayahuasca Healing in Amazonia | http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.1989.10472145#.UeQ_9o03vMc
- Some folk uses of Peganum harmala in India and Pakistan | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02860378
- Ott J. Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaen Entheogens. Natural Products Co.. 1994. 34
- Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462015000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
- Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology. -- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23662333
- Health status of ayahuasca users. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22761152
- Pic-Taylor et al (2015). Behavioral and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria Viridis) in female Wistar rat. Behav Processes (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049017
- DMT – UN report, MAPS, 2001-03-31, archived from the original on January 21, 2012, retrieved 2012-01-14
- The Internationalization of Ayahuasca, page 327
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- Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
- PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
- Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
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