6-APDB

6-APDB

6-APDB

Psychoactive Research chemicals are new synthetic substances that are structurally similar to the original drug, while being functional analogs. Research on the effects of, and treatment for, abuse of these drugs is limited due to the fact that they’re fairly new and have avoided mainstream notice. Research chemicals do not have a lot of human consumption data, and thus harm-reduction and special care should be taken if choosing to ingest them.

Psychedelics are drugs which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations. These chemicals offer some of the most intense psychological experiences and care should be taken when ingesting them.

Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most power and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.

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Description

6-APDB

Also known as:

  • 1-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamin[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 1-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamine[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 1-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamine[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 1-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
  • 6-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
  • 6-Benzofuranethanamine, 2,3-dihydro-α-methyl-[ACD/Index Name]
  • 1-(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine (6-apdb)
  • 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
  • 2-(2,3-Dihydro-benzofuran-6-yl)-1-methyl-ethylamine
  • 2,3-Dihydro-α-methyl-6-Benzofuranethanamine
  • 6-(2-amineopropyl) -2,3-dihydrobenzofurane[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]furan
  • 6-APDB
  • 6-Benzofuranethanamine,2,3-dihydro-a-methyl-
  • 6-Nprop-dbf
  • PI-45417

A stimulant and entactogen related to MDMA and an analogue of MDA. Reported as being fairly psychedlic at higher doses. It is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor. Potent full agonist of serotonin 2B receptors.

Summary

It is a closely related synthetic analogue of MDA and 6-APB and broadly shares the characteristics of serotonin-selective triple monoamine releasers and reuptake inhibitors associated with other entactogenic or empathogenic compounds. 6-APDB was first synthesized and studied along with 5-APDB in 1993 by David E. Nichols as a potential non-neurotoxic alternative to MDMA.

It did not come into popular recreational use until over a decade later, where it briefly entered the rave scene and global research chemicals market, in particular the “legal highs” market in the U. K. , before its sale and import were subsequently banned.

Because 6-APDB and other substituted benzofurans have not been explicitly outlawed in some countries, they are often technically legal, contributing to their popularity as a substitute or replacement for serotonergic entactogens like MDMA or MDA, and are typically distributed through the online research chemicals grey market.

History

Chemistry

6-APDB

6-APDB

Molecules of this class contain a phenethylamine core bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. 6-APDB does not contain a methyl substitution on RN, a motif which it shares with MDA.

It is an analogue of MDA where the heterocyclic 4-position oxygen from the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring has been replaced with a methylene bridge.

6-APDB shares this furan ring with 5-APDB, 5-MAPDB and 6-MAPDB.

Common Name6-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
Systematic name6-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
FormulaC_{11}H_{15}NO
SMILESCC(Cc1ccc2c(c1)OCC2)N
Std. InChiInChI=1S/C11H15NO/c1-8(12)6-9-2-3-10-4-5-13-11(10)7-9/h2-3,7-8H,4-6,12H2,1H3
Std. InChiKeyVRNGXHJGMCJRSQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Avg. Mass177.2429 Da
Molecular Weight177.2429
Monoisotopic Mass177.115356 Da
Nominal Mass177
ChemSpider ID167141

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Dosing Guide

Oral
Threshold25-30mg
Low30-40mg
Medium40-75mg
Heavy75-100+mg

Duration

6-APDB Duration Data
Onset60-90 minutes
Duration7-9 hours
After-effectsSome

Interactions and Synergies

Caution

  1. Mushrooms
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  2. LSD
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  3. DMT
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  4. Mescaline
    • The focus and anxiety caused by stimulants is magnified by psychedelics and results in an increased risk of thought loops
  5. 2C-x
    • The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally uneccessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics. Combination of the stimulating effects may be uncomfortable.
  6. Cannabis
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  7. Ketamine
    • No unexpected interactions, though likely to increase blood pressure but not an issue with sensible doses. Moving around on high doses of this combination may be ill advised due to risk of physical injury.
  8. MXE
    • Risk of tachycardia, hypertension, and manic states
  9. Cocaine
    • This combination of stimulants will increase strain on the heart. It is not generally worth it as cocaine has a mild blocking effect on dopamine releasers like amphetamine
  10. Caffeine
    • This combination of stimulants is not generally necessary and may increase strain on the heart, as well as potentially causing anxiety and greater physical discomfort.
  11. Alcohol
    • Drinking on stimulants is risky because the sedative effects of the alcohol are reduced, and these are what the body uses to gauge drunkenness. This typically leads to excessive drinking with greatly reduced inhibitions, high risk of liver damage and increased dehydration. They will also allow you to drink past a point where you might normally pass out, increasing the risk. If you do decide to do this then you should set a limit of how much you will drink each hour and stick to it, bearing in mind that you will feel the alcohol and the stimulant less. Extended release formulations may severely impede sleep, further worsening the hangover.
  12. GHB/GBL
    • Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
  13. Opioids
    • Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of opiates. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.

Dangerous

  1. DOx
    • The combined stimulating effects of the two can lead to an uncomfortable body-load, while the focusing effects of amphetamine can easily lead to thought loops. Coming down from amphetamines while the DOx is still active can be quite anxiogenic.
  2. NBOMes
    • Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and in extreme cases heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
  3. 2C-T-x
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences. In extreme cases, they can result in severe vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and in extreme cases heart failure.
  4. 5-MeO-xxT
    • The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally unnecessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics.
  5. DXM
    • Both substances raise heart rate, in extreme cases, panic attacks caused by these drugs have led to more serious heart issues.
  6. PCP
    • This combination can easily lead to hypermanic states

Low Synergy

  1. Benzodiazepines
    • Both can dull each other's effects, so if one wears off before the other it's possible to overdose due to the lack of counteraction

No Synergy

  1. SSRIs

High Synergy

  1. N2O
  2. MDMA
    • Amphetamines increase the neurotoxic effects of MDMA

General Information

Experiences
Oral
Vaporization
Come up
Dosage
EffectsEuphoria, increased energy/alertness, Decreased need for sleep, Increased sociability, mood lift, increase sexuality, Excessive talking, Decreased appetite, Weight loss, Sweating, Distrubed sleep patterns, Bruxia, Visual and audiotory hallucinations itchiness, agressiveness, moodiness.
After Effects
Avoid
Warning
Risks
Test Kits
Marguis Test Result
Tolerance
Detection
Half-life
Advice
Note
Note 2:
Note 3:

Effects

Pharmacological Effects

6-APDB acts as a releasing agent and triple reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters known as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline which are the global neurotransmitters that modulate the brain’s ability to feel pleasure, motivation, reward, planning, attention and focus. This is done by promoting the release and inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse through release into the synaptic cleft, essentially allowing them to accumulate and render them liable for immediate reuse. The net result is excitation in a manner which causes a combination of physically stimulating, relaxing, disinhibiting and euphoric effects. The unsaturated benzofuran derivative 6-APB, or 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran is also known, but the difference in pharmacological effects between 6-APB and 6-APDB has yet to be fully elucidated.

Subjective Effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical Effects

  • Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of 6-APDB can be described as a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation that radiates throughout the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses, and capable of immobilizing the user. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
  • Stimulation and Sedation - In terms of its effects on the user's physical energy levels, 6-APDB is commonly considered to have the paradoxical ability to both be stimulating as well as sedating and relaxing. Overall, it is thought to be far less energetic than MDMA or MDA and tends to exert more of a pronounced sedating stoning or couch-locking effect. Unlike MDMA, this does not particularly encourage activities such as running, climbing and dancing in a way that makes MDMA a popular choice for musical events such as festivals and raves. The particular style of stimulation which 6-APDB presents is far less forceful in a way that is more reminiscent of mescaline.
  • Vibrating vision - At high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
  • Dehydration - Feelings of dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with this class of compounds; this effect is a product of an increased heart rate and bodily metabolism. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated (especially when out dancing in a hot environment) there have been a number of notable cases of users suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking (in order to compensate). So it is advised that users simply sip at water and avoid over-drinking.
  • Difficulty urinating - Like with other triple releasers, higher doses of 6-APDB result in an overall difficulty when it comes to urination. This is an effect that is completely temporary and harmless. It is due to 6-APDB’s promotion of the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH); ADH is responsible for regulating urination. This effect can be lessened by simply relaxing, but can be significantly relieved by placing a hot flannel over the genitals to warm them up and encourage blood flow to the region.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased bodily temperature - As 6-APDB is a serotonin releasing agent, a rise in core body and brain temperature tends to be high and consistent throughout the experience. Caution must be taken as too high of a dose can result in the dysregulation of the brain's ability to regulate its internal core temperature, which can result in serotonin syndrome, a condition which can be fatal if left untreated.
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased perspiration
  • Perception of bodily lightness
  • Physical euphoria
  • Pupil dilation
  • Stamina enhancement
  • Tactile enhancement
  • Teeth grinding - This is usually only present at moderate to higher doses and is similar to what one might experience from MDMA or MDA.
  • Temporary erectile dysfunction

Psychological Effects

The cognitive effects of 6-APDB can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of 6-APDB is described by many as one of moderate mental stimulation, feelings of love, openness or empathy, and powerful euphoria. It displays a large number of typical psychedelic, entactogenic and stimulant cognitive effects. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:

  • Cognitive euphoria - Strong emotional euphoria and feelings of happiness are present within 6-APDB and are likely a direct result of serotonin and dopamine release.
  • Empathy, love, and sociability enhancement - This particular effect is generally more consistent, pronounced, powerful and therapeutic with 6-APDB than any other known substance. It is the most obvious and noticeable effect within any 6-APDB experience and dominates the head space. With time, repeated use, and improper spacing, however, this effect becomes severely diminished as the perspective it instills becomes fully imprinted, making it so users feel merely speedy and scattered with no new found urges to communicate or bond with others.
  • Time distortion - Strong feelings of time compression are common within 6-APDB and alter the experience of time quite noticeably.
  • Unity and interconnectedness - Experiences of unity, oneness and interconnectedness between level 2 - 3 are common within 6-APDB. This component most consistently manifests itself at high doses within large crowds at raves and musical events in the form of "becoming one with the crowd."
  • Anxiety suppression
  • Compulsive redosing - Due to its potential euphoria-inducing effects, there is the potential for 6-APDB to encourage compulsive redosing, much like with MDMA or MDA. Yet due to the length of the experience, many find this less of an issue.
  • Creativity enhancement
  • Existential self-realization - Although this effect is present, it is not quite as pronounced or as consistent when compared to other hallucinogens such as mescaline, LSD or MXE. Due to the relative calmness and lack of chaotic energy that 6-APDB possesses relative to MDMA, however, this combined with its extended duration may make it a better therapeutic agent and can be thought of as lying closer to the spectrum of mescaline than MDMA.
  • Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low to moderate doses as anything higher will usually impair concentration.
  • Immersion enhancement
  • Increased libido
  • Increased music appreciation
  • Mindfulness
  • Motivation enhancement
  • Thought acceleration
  • Wakefulness - This component is present, but to a noticeably lesser degree than MDMA. Users often report being heavily sedated or "floored" compared to typical stimulants.

Visual Effects

Similar to MDMA, the visual effects of 6-APDB have an occurrence rating that is more selective and less consistent than any of the traditional psychedelics. This is to the point where many people disregard psychedelic experiences within 6-APDB as a "myth" or "rumour", but this is simply because they have not experienced it for themselves. The effects can never be guaranteed to manifest themselves, but are more likely to occur with chemically pure, high dose 6-APDB experiences, towards the end of the experience and if the user has been smoking cannabis. They are also more likely to occur if the user has prior experience with psychedelics, but also remain entirely possible within those who have never tried one them as well. Unlike MDMA, 6-APDB has the capacity to directly induce mild to moderate visual effects (due to its partial agonism of the 5HT2A receptor), which makes it qualitatively more comparable to MDA.

Enhancements

6-APDB presents an array of visual enhancements which are mild in comparison to traditional psychedelics, but still distinctively present. These generally include:

Distortions

Geometry

The visual geometry that is present throughout this trip can be described as more similar in appearance to that of psilocin than LSD. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in style, structured in organization, dimly lit in lighting, mostly monotone in colour with blues and greys, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, small in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equal in round and angular corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. At higher doses, they are significantly more likely to result in states of level 8A visual geometry over level 8B.

Hallucinatory states

6-APDB is capable of producing a unique range of low and high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is significantly less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects are far more common during the offset of the experience and commonly include:

  • External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - This effect is very similar to the same experience found within deliriants, but does not manifest itself consistently and usually happens only at high doses. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as delirious in believability, autonomous in controllability and solid in style. They usually follow themes of memory replays and semi-realistic or expected events. For example, people could be casually holding objects or performing actions which one would expect them to be in real life before disappearing and dissolving under further inspection. Common examples of this include seeing people wearing glasses or hats when they are not and mistaking faces of your friends for random people, and objects as human beings or animals.
  • Internal hallucination - The internal hallucinations which 6-APDB induces are generally only present as spontaneous breakthroughs at extremely high doses. This effect's variations are delirious in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability and solid in appearance. The most common way in which they manifest themselves are through hypnagogic scenarios which the user may experience as they are drifting off to sleep after a night of use; these can usually be described as memory replay from the previous several hours. These are short and fleeting, but frequent and completely believable and convincing as they happen. In terms of the theme, they often take the form of conversations with the people who were with you or instead manifest themselves as bizarre and extremely nonsensical plots.
  • Peripheral information misinterpretation

Auditory Effects

Sensory Effects

Transpersonal Effects

Legal Status


References

  1. "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine"|https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8246240
  2. Effects of 6-APDB on the release of monoamines from rat brain slices https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3582025/
  3. New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines | http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.47.120505.105140
  4. Drug-induced Valvulopathy: An Update | tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/6/837.full
  5. Possible association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse and valvular heart disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950805
  6. Drug-induced hyperthermia | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1993.tb07423.x/abstract;jsessionid=FC30A9B157A2BAFC81048D8595714565.f02t03
  7. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634574
  8. Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population | http://jop.sagepub.com/content/20/3/400
  9. Drug-induced Valvulopathy: An Update | tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/6/837.full
  10. Possible association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse and valvular heart disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950805
  11. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  12. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  13. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  14. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  15. "Gesetz zur Bekämpfung der Verbreitung neuer psychoaktiver Stoffe" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  16. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  17. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
  18. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/1106/contents/made

Sources

Information made possible with:

  1. PsychonautWiki is a community-driven online encyclopedia that aims to document the field of psychonautics in a comprehensive, scientifically-grounded manner.
  2. Erowid is a non-profit educational & harm-reduction resource with 60 thousand pages of online information about psychoactive drugs
  3. PubChem National Center for Bio Informatics
  4. Chemspider is a free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 34 million structures, properties and associated information.
  5. Wikipedia

Additional APIs were used to construct this information. Thanks for ChemSpider, NCBI, PubChem etc.

Data is constantly updated so please check back later to see if there is any more available information on this substance.