Psychedelic Research Chemicals or RC Chems are new synthetic substances which are structurally similar to the original drug, while being functional analogs. Data on their effects limited due as they’re fairly new and do not have a lot of human consumption history.

Psychedelics are substances (natural or laboratory made) which cause profound changes in a one’s perceptions of reality. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might hallcuniate visually and auditorily.

Disclaimer: Psychedelic drugs offer some of the most powerful and intense psychological experiences. Additionally these substances are illegal in many places. We understand that even though these substances are illegal, their use occurs frequently. We do not condone breaking of the law. By providing accurate information about these substances, we encourage the user to make responsible decisions and practice harm reduction.

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Description

6-APB Also known as:

  • 1-(1-Benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamin[German][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 1-(1-Benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamine[ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 1-(1-Benzofuran-6-yl)-2-propanamine[French][ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • 285VE60914
  • 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran
  • 6-Benzofuranethanamine, α-methyl-[ACD/Index Name]
  • UNII:285VE60914
  • [286834-85-3]
  • 1-(1-benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
  • 1-(Benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amin
  • 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
  • 1-benzofuran-6-ylpropan-2-amine
  • '286834-85-3
  • a-?ethyl-6-benzofuran Ethanamine ?ydrochloride
  • MFCD17019361

A stimulant, empathogen and analog of MDA. Typically more visual than MDMA or MDA, as well as having a much longer onset and duration. Users often report a slightly more psychedelic headspace as well. Commonly sold as an alternative to MDMA and MDA.

Summary

It is structurally related to entactogens like MDA, MDMA, 5-APB, and 5-MAPB. 6-APB was first synthesized in 1993 by David E. Nichols as a potential non-neurotoxic alternative to MDMA.

However, it did not come into popular recreational use until over a decade later, where it briefly entered the rave scene and global research chemicals market. It was sold along with other novel benzofuran entactogens under the name “Benzofury” before its sale and import were subsequently banned. Subjective effects include anxiety suppression, disinhibition, muscle relaxation, and euphoria.

6-APB’s effects are commonly compared to those of MDA and other entactogens. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 6-APB, and it has only a brief history of human usage. It has been marketed alongside research chemical entactogens like 5-MAPB and 5-APB as a legal, grey-market alternative to MDMA, and is typically commercially distributed by online research chemical vendors.

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History

The synthesis of 6-APB was first reported by a team led by the medicinal chemist and psychedelic researcher David E. Nichols at Purdue University. They were examining the role of the MDA dioxle ring structure in interacting with serotonergic neurons.

It was also partly an effort to find an alternative to MDMA, which was gaining recognition as a potentially useful adjunct in psychotherapy, but was also being linked to neurotoxic effects. Human usage was not documented until 2010, when it emerged for sale on the research chemical market. It was particularly prominent in the UK “legal highs” market, where it was sold under the name “Benzofury”. On June 10, 2013 6-APB and a number of analogues were classified as Temporary Class Drugs in the UK following an ACMD recommendation. On November 28, 2013 the ACMD recommended that 6-APB and related benzofurans should become Class B, Schedule 1 substances.

On March 5, 2014 the UK Home Office announced that 6-APB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other benzofuran entactogen and many structurally related drugs.

Chemistry

6-APB

6-APB

The benzofuran class of substances are members of the amphetamine and phenylethylamine classes.

Molecules of this class contain a phenethylamine core bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα.

6-APB does not contain a methyl substitution on RN.

It is composed of an an oxygen-substituted benzofuran ring fused at R3 and R4 of the phenyl ring. Notably, 6-APB shares this benzofuran ring with related compounds such as 5-APB, 5-MAPB, and 6-MAPB. Three distinct batches have been in circulation since its initial release to markets.

Originally, only hydrochloride was available, and its dosage range shared characteristics most similar to that of MDA in terms of dose-response.

However, succinate and fumarate batches both entered the market, and have very different effects by weight, and vastly different loose bulk densities.

Common Name6-APB
Systematic name6-APB
FormulaC_{11}H_{13}NO
SMILESo2c1cc(ccc1cc2)CC(N)C
Std. InChiInChI=1S/C11H13NO/c1-8(12)6-9-2-3-10-4-5-13-11(10)7-9/h2-5,7-8H,6,12H2,1H3
Std. InChiKeyFQDAMYLMQQKPRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Avg. Mass175.227 Da
Molecular Weight175.227
Monoisotopic Mass175.099716 Da
Nominal Mass175
ChemSpider ID7970110

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Dose Chart

Light:
Light50-75mg
Common75-125mg
Heavy125mg+

Duration Chart

6-APB Duration Data
Onset45-90 minutes
Duration8-14 hours
After-effects6-apb

Interactions

Caution

  1. Mushrooms
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  2. LSD
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  3. DMT
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  4. Mescaline
    • The focus and anxiety caused by stimulants is magnified by psychedelics and results in an increased risk of thought loops
  5. 2C-x
    • The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally uneccessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics. Combination of the stimulating effects may be uncomfortable.
  6. Cannabis
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  7. Ketamine
    • No unexpected interactions, though likely to increase blood pressure but not an issue with sensible doses. Moving around on high doses of this combination may be ill advised due to risk of physical injury.
  8. MXE
    • Risk of tachycardia, hypertension, and manic states
  9. Cocaine
    • This combination of stimulants will increase strain on the heart. It is not generally worth it as cocaine has a mild blocking effect on dopamine releasers like amphetamine
  10. Caffeine
    • This combination of stimulants is not generally necessary and may increase strain on the heart, as well as potentially causing anxiety and greater physical discomfort.
  11. Alcohol
    • Drinking on stimulants is risky because the sedative effects of the alcohol are reduced, and these are what the body uses to gauge drunkenness. This typically leads to excessive drinking with greatly reduced inhibitions, high risk of liver damage and increased dehydration. They will also allow you to drink past a point where you might normally pass out, increasing the risk. If you do decide to do this then you should set a limit of how much you will drink each hour and stick to it, bearing in mind that you will feel the alcohol and the stimulant less. Extended release formulations may severely impede sleep, further worsening the hangover.
  12. GHB/GBL
    • Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
  13. Opioids
    • Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of opiates. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.

Dangerous

  1. DOx
    • The combined stimulating effects of the two can lead to an uncomfortable body-load, while the focusing effects of amphetamine can easily lead to thought loops. Coming down from amphetamines while the DOx is still active can be quite anxiogenic.
  2. NBOMes
    • Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and in extreme cases heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
  3. 2C-T-x
    • Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences. In extreme cases, they can result in severe vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and in extreme cases heart failure.
  4. 5-MeO-xxT
    • The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants increase the chance of unpleasant thought loops. The combination is generally unnecessary because of the stimulating effects of psychedelics.
  5. DXM
    • Both substances raise heart rate, in extreme cases, panic attacks caused by these drugs have led to more serious heart issues.
  6. PCP
    • This combination can easily lead to hypermanic states

Low Synergy

  1. Benzodiazepines
    • Both can dull each other's effects, so if one wears off before the other it's possible to overdose due to the lack of counteraction

No Synergy

  1. SSRIs

High Synergy

  1. N2O
  2. MDMA
    • Amphetamines increase the neurotoxic effects of MDMA

Auditory Effects

Psychological Effects

The cognitive effects of 6-APB can be broken down into several effects which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of 6-APB is described by many as one of moderate mental stimulation, feelings of love, openness or empathy, and a powerful sense of contentedness and euphoria. It displays a large number of typical psychedelic, entactogenic and stimulant cognitive effects. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:

Pharmacological Effects

6-APB is a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI) with Ki values of 117, 150, and 2698 nM for the norepinephrine transporter (NET), dopamine transporter (DAT), and serotonin transporter (SERT), respectively. 6-APB also possesses additional activity as a releasing agent of these monoamine neurotransmitters. 6-APB is a potent full agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor (Ki = 3.7 nM), with higher affinity for this target than any other site. Moreover, unlike MDMA, 6-APB shows 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2B receptor over the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Aside from the 5-HT2B receptor, 6-APB has also been found to bind with high affinity to the α2C-adrenergic receptor subtype (Ki = 45 nM), although the clinical significance of this action is unknown. The potent agonism of the 5-HT2B receptor makes it likely that 6-APB would be cardiotoxic with chronic or long-term use, as seen with other 5-HT2B receptor agonists such as the withdrawn serotonergic anorectic fenfluramine. The monoamine neurotransmitters known as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline are the global neurotransmitters that modulate the brain’s ability to feel pleasure, motivation, reward, planning, attention, and focus. When their reuptake is inhibited or their release is promoted, these neurotransmitters accumulate in the synaptic cleft (gaps between neurons) to non-ordinary levels, which makes them able to be reused. The result is neuronal activation at a multitude of brain regions which has the net result of producing a combination of stimulating, relaxing, disinhibiting and euphoric effects.

Physical Effects

  • Stimulation & Sedation - In terms of its effects on the user's physical energy levels, 6-APB is commonly considered to have the paradoxical ability to both be stimulating as well as sedating and relaxing. Overall, it is thought to be far less energetic than MDMA or MDA and tends to exert more of a pronounced "stoning" or "couch-locking" effect. The particular style of stimulation which 6-APB presents is far less forceful in a way that can be compared to psychedelics like mescaline.
  • Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of 6-APB can be described as a moderate to powerful warm, euphoric tingling sensation that radiates throughout the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses to the point of immobilizing the user. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
  • Tactile enhancement
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Stamina enhancement
  • Temperature regulation suppression
  • Increased bodily temperature - As 6-APB is a serotonin releasing agent, a rise in core body and brain temperature tends to be high and consistent throughout the experience. Caution must be taken as too high of a dose can result in the dysregulation of the brain's ability to regulate its internal core temperature. 6-APB is commonly reported to having a similar hyperthermia to MDA and MDMA, but slightly warmer than either. Serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal condition, presents this effect to dangerous levels.
  • Vibrating vision - At common to high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased perspiration
  • Dehydration - Feelings of dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with this class of compounds; this effect is a product of an increased heart rate and bodily metabolism. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated (especially when out dancing in a hot environment) there have been some notable cases of users suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking (to compensate). It is therefore advised that users be mindful of their water intake and avoid over-drinking.
  • Dry mouth
  • Difficulty urinating - Higher doses of 6-APB can result in an overall difficulty when it comes to urination. This is an effect that is completely temporary and harmless. It is due to 6-APB’s promotion of the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH); ADH is responsible for regulating urination. This effect can be lessened by simply relaxing, but can be significantly relieved by placing a hot flannel over the genitals to warm them up and encourage blood flow to the region.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Pupil dilation
  • Excessive yawning
  • Temporary erectile dysfunction
  • Teeth grinding - This is usually only present at moderate to higher doses and is similar to what one might experience from MDMA or MDA.
  • Seizure - This is a rare effect but are thought to be able to occur in those who are predisposed to them, especially when taking overly strong doses or redosing while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, fatigued, undernourished, or overheated.

Subjective Effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Visual Effects

The visual effects of 6-APB have an occurrence rating that is more selective and less consistent than any of the traditional psychedelics. The effects can never be guaranteed to manifest themselves, but are the most likely to occur with high doses, towards the end of the experience and particularly if the user has been smoking cannabis. They are also more likely to occur if the user has prior experience with psychedelics, but also remain entirely possible for those who have never tried them as well.

Enhancements

6-APB presents an array of visual enhancements which are mild in comparison to traditional psychedelics, but still distinctively present. These generally include:

Distortions

Geometry

The visual geometry of 6-APB experience can be described as more similar in appearance to that of mescaline than LSD or psilocin. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in style, structured in organization, dimly lit in lighting, mostly monotone in color with blues and greys, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, small in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equal in round and angular corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. At higher doses, they are significantly more likely to result in states of level 8A visual geometry over level 8B.

Hallucinatory states

At high to heavy doses, 6-APB is capable of producing a unique range of low and high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is significantly less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects are far more common during the offset of the experience and commonly include:

  • Transformations
  • External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - This effect is very similar to the same experience found within deliriants, but does not manifest itself consistently and usually happens only at high doses. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as delirious in believability, autonomous in controllability and solid in style. They usually follow themes of memory replays and semi-realistic or expected events. For example, people could be casually holding objects or performing actions which one would expect them to be in real life before disappearing and dissolving under further inspection. Common examples of this include seeing people wearing glasses or hats when they are not and mistaking faces of your friends for random people, and objects as human beings or animals.
  • Internal hallucination - The internal hallucinations which 6-APB induce are mostly only present as spontaneous breakthroughs at extremely high doses. This effect's variations are delirious in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability and solid in appearance. The most common way in which they manifest themselves are through hypnagogic scenarios which the user may experience as they are drifting off to sleep after a night of use; these can usually be described as memory replay from the previous several hours. These are short and fleeting, but frequent and completely believable and convincing as they happen. In terms of the theme, they often take the form of conversations with the people who were with you or instead manifest themselves as bizarre and extremely nonsensical plots.
  • Peripheral information misinterpretation

Legal Status

  • Australia and New Zealand: Certain countries contain a "substantially similar" catch-all clause in their drug law, such as New Zealand and Australia. This includes 6-APB as it is similar in chemical structure to the class A drug MDA, meaning 6-APB may be viewed as a controlled substance analogue in these jurisdictions.
  • Canada: 6-APB is Schedule III in Canada as it is an analogue of MDA. The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.
  • Germany: 6-APB is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) as of July 17, 2013. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
  • Italy: 6-APB is illegal in Italy.
  • Sweden: 6-APB is prohibited in Sweden as a "health hazard" as of 2009.
  • United Kingdom: On June 10, 2013, 6-APB and some analogues were classified as Temporary Class Drugs in the U.K. following an ACMD recommendation. On March 5, 2014, the U.K. Home Office announced that 6-APB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other benzofuran entactogen and many structurally related drugs.
  • United States: 6-APB is unscheduled in the United States, but not currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for human consumption.
  • Sources

    References

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    2. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Jeremy Browne (4 June 2013). "Temporary class drug order on benzofury and NBOMe compounds - letter from ACMD". GOV.UK.
    3. UK Home Office (28 April 2014). "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014". The National Archives.
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    6. Canal CE, Murnane KS (2017). "The serotonin 5-HT2C receptor and the non-addictive nature of classic hallucinogens". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 31 (1): 127–143. PMID 27903793. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116677104
    7. US patent 7045545, Karin Briner, Joseph Paul Burkhart, Timothy Paul Burkholder, Matthew Joseph Fisher, William Harlan Gritton, Daniel Timothy Kohlman, Sidney Xi Liang, Shawn Christopher Miller, Jeffrey Thomas Mullaney, Yao-Chang Xu, Yanping Xu, "Aminoalkylbenzofurans as serotonin (5-HT(2c)) agonists", published 19 January 2000, issued 16 May 2006
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    9. New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines | http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.47.120505.105140
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